Open Access Short communication

Temitomyces heimii– A Nutritious and Medicinally Important Wild Edible Mushroom of Similipal Forests, Odisha Boosting Tribal Health and Economy

Supriya Kulkarni, Santosh Joshi, Hrudayanath Thatoi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 21-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i2298

Mushrooms are consumed worldwide because of their nutritional, medicinal values as well as pleasant taste and flavour. Wild edible mushrooms are source of livelihood for poor and landless people which they consume and sell the surplus mushrooms in the nearby market. Many people are not aware about the edibility of wild mushrooms which are generally confined to the tribal areas. However, tribals are aware of the edible mushrooms due to their age-old traditional uses and fond of hunting mushrooms during rainy season. The present paper deals with availability, collection, consumption pattern of wild edible mushrooms by tribals communities, along with preservation and economical contribution of Termitomyces heimii, a popular wild edible mushrooms profusely growing during rainy season of the Similipal, state of Odisha, India.

Similipal has a greater diversity of mushrooms throughout the length and breadth due to its varying soil and climate conditions. T. heimii collected the tribal people from near forest area in 4-5 different times in huge quantities during July to October. It partly consumed and rest of the mushroom are sold in the market at a price of Rupees 300/- to 400/-. Termitomyces were more frequently available in Sal (Shorea robusta) forests. Many traders visit forest fringe villages and collect this mushroom from local collector’s and sell it in the marker with profit. Due to its taste, the mushroom has got very high demand in this locality that, it is sold within 5-6 hours after reaching to market. It is assessed that mushrooms worth 14 lakhs are sold in Baripada alone a nearly town of Similipal. The valuation T. heimii alone made by the authors during the field assessment showed that, the entire of Similipal is contributing economically nearly 1.2 crore value of mushrooms as contribution towards livelihood of tribal people. In interior areas tribal people preserve the mushrooms after drying it and consume later during after the season is end. During the study, a survey was conducted in villages adjoining to the forests and local markets to assess the quantities of mushrooms collected from forest and the value of selling valve on the market. Exercise was conducted to know the traditional preservation practice of this mushroom by tribals. From the present investigation, it is concluded that T. heimii is an important wild edible mushroom from Similipal which provides, nutrition and economic boost to the tribals in Similipal region. This promising species can be explored for its domestication in view of its preferred food value as well as a livelihood support of the rural poor people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Biologically Active Components and Nutritional Contents of Seed Kernels of Opioro and Julie Mango Varieties: A Right Step for Drug Discovery

K. C. Nwachukwu, O. C. Ugbogu, N. C. Nwachukwu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i2296

This study was aimed at investigating the biologically active compounds and nutritional compositions in the seed kernels of Opioro and Julie varieties with medicinal qualities. The seed kernels were milled, dissolved in methanol and concentrated with rotary evaporator. The chemical compounds in these extracts were analyzed with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry while the mineral and proximate compounds were assessed with the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Both Opioro and Julie did not contain similar chemical compounds. A total of 22 chemical compounds were obtained from Opioro while only 13 compounds were discovered in Julie. Five bioactive compounds from Opioro namely cholest-5-en-3-ol, (3.alpha.) (31.63%), 2-Pyridinamine, N-(4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-3-methyl- (14.74%), 2-Methyl-7-phenylindole (6.96%), benzo[h]quinoline, 2,4-dimethyl (6.61%) and 7-Methyl -2-phenyl-1H-indole (4.27%) were abundant. In Julie, only Octadecanoic acid, 6-Octadecenoic acid, 1, 2, 3-Benzenetriol and n-Hexadecanoic acid were plentiful with the highest peak percentage of 39.76%, 16.05% and 5.41% respectively. The protein, fibre, moisture and ash contents from Opioro and Julie were not significantly different but, the carbohydrates varied (P<0.05) between 71.36±0.37% and 70.22±0.44% and fats varied (P<0.05) between 7.20±0.48% and 9.21±0.31% respectively. Phosphorus (1610.00±14.00 ppm), calcium (4595.00±7.07 ppm), and magnesium (1984.50±21.92 ppm) were high in Julie while zinc (18.197±0.25), copper (14.960±0.09), iron (319.615±2.28) and manganese (337.940±5.80) were more in Opioro than Julie. The seed kernels of Opioro and Julie have abundant bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. The essential mineral elements and rich proximate compounds in both extracts are potentially required and can be capable of improving the health and nutritional conditions of both humans and animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maximizing the Role of the Internal Larval Parasitoid, Meteorus gyrator (Thunberg) in the Open Field as a Biological Control Agent Considering the Effects of Climatic Changes

Mohamed A. Gesraha, Amany R. Ebeid, Shahira S. Marei, Ola O. El-Fandary, Atef Abdel-Rahman Aly

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i2297

Background: Members of Braconidae, i.e., Meteorus spp. assault certain lepidopterous larvae in Egyptian fields. The recorded species M.rubens (gregarious) and M.gyrator (solitary) were the most species reared from some lepidopterous larvae attacking various host plants in two chosen Governorates in Egypt through two experimental years. This work aims to increase the parasitizing efficiency of M.gyrator in fields by releasing an impressive number of parasitoid adults.

Methods:

  1. Samples of lepidopteran larvae were picked up from the prevailing plants in fields of El-Ghaebia and El-Sharkia Governorates, for two successive years (2020 to 2021). The prevailing plants are: clover, cabbage, okra, tomato, maize, jew's mallow, bean, soybean, cotton, pea, and lettuce. Collected larvae were reared under optimal conditions until their pupation or in anticipation of the migration of the full-grown endoparasitoid's larvae for pupation.
  2. Parasitoid’s production: Species of some lepidopterous larvae were reared in the NRC laboratory for large-scale manufacturing of the parasitoid Meteorus gyrator.

Results: Acquired results uncover that Agrotis ipsilon was the primary noctuid host larvae of M. rubens during its abundant periods (February-May). While in case of M.gyrator it was recorded in fewer numbers (at its abundant periods, May-August); which was raised from other lepidopteran larvae.

The M. rubens parasitism percentage reached 26.50 and 21.79% at El-Gharbia Governorate through the two experimental years, respectively; whereas in the case of M. gyrator it was 2.25% in the 2nd experimental year only. In El-Sharkia, M. rubens parasitism percentage was 18.60 and 28.60%, respectively throughout the two experimental years; while it was 10.00% for M. gyrator in the first year only.

Conclusion: To boost the productivity of this solitary internal parasitoid as a bio-control agent, it is mandatory to increase its adults population in any field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Knockdown Efficacy of Locally Made Insecticide ‘Ota Pia-Pia’ and Commercially Available ‘Sniper’ Against Malaria Vectors Using Deltametrin as the Control Standard in Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa, Nigeria

I. O. Safiya, M. D. Olayinka, T. A. Umbugala, S. S. Eke, R. J. Ombugadu, M. M. Abdullahi, J. D. C. Tongjura

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i2299

Mosquitoes are vectors of the major diseases of public health concern in the World. These include malaria, dengue fever, lymphatic filariasis, yellow fever, chikwungunya and recently zika virus causing morbidity and mortality in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The success of malarial vector control depends on the susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes to insecticides. One locally made insecticide (Ota Pia-Pia), and synthetic insecticides Sniper and while Deltamethrin were used as a go standard from WHOPES as the control for the two insecticide to conduct Bioassay test against Anopheles mosquitoes in Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa the aim is to compare state of knockdown effects. The test papers included Ota pia-pia impregnated with (0.05%, 0.5% and 1.0%), sniper (0.05%, 0.5% and 1.0%), Deltamethrin (0.05%) as control for the insecticides and a general control using untreated paper impregnated with 0.05% of olive oil. Anopheles mosquito larvae were collected from three locations in Keffi Local Government Area and were returned in plastic bowls to the insectary laboratory of the Department of Zoology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi and reared to adults. One hundred (100) female Anopheles mosquitoes were fed with glucose for 3 – 5 days used in the Bioassay per treatment and replicated four times. The post-exposure one hour knockdown and 24hours mortality was assessed. It was observed that at 1%, 0.5% and 0.05% concentrations in sniper had the highest knockdown effect, 96%, 90% and 88% respectively while Deltamethrin had the least knockdown effect of 25%, 28% and 29% in August, September and October respectively. The results indicated that the mosquito populations in the locality were more resistant to Deltamethrin than sniper. A regular monitoring of resistance status is essential to help control mosquitoes in our communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Evaluation and Comparison of Chemical Quality of β-Carotene Extracted in Different Seasons from Azolla filicloides

Mina Seifzadeh

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i2300

The present research was aimed for determining the quality of natural β-Carotene, comparing it with synthetic β-Carotene and the effect of season on it. Azolla was sampled in summer and winter seasons. The treatments included β-carotene derived from Azolla through the organic solutions. Synthetic β-Carotene was used as the control. The treatments were kept at 5°C for one year. The results showed purity, concentration, colorimetric and vitamin A in the experimental and control treatments, revealed significant difference (p<0.05). β-Carotene amount was higher in summer treatment group as compared to those sampled in winter (p<0.05). The solubility of β-Carotene was greatest in tetrahydrofuran, while methanol and acetonitrile exhibited the least solubility. Degradation was greatest in cyclohexanone. The experimental treatments had a desirable chemical quality the end of storage period. As the natural β-Carotene takes precedence over the synthetic one in terms of the food hygiene, it is recommended that β-Carotene extracted from Azolla can be substituted with synthetic β-Carotene in the food industry.