Open Access Short Research Article

Economic Importance of Wild Mushrooms in Mayurbhanj District, Odisha, India

Sanjeet Kumar, Arun Kumar Mishra, Sweta Mishra, Sugimani Marndi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i430246

In forest-dominated areas, the local communities depend on forests for their food, medicine, and livelihood. Seasonal livelihoods are observed mostly in these areas. Wild edible mushrooms are a seasonal source of livelihood and food for tribal communities. Keeping the importance of wild mushrooms in providing livelihood opportunities, an attempt has been made to document the economically important wild edible mushrooms of Mayurbhanj, Odisha, India. Results revealed that about 10 species are collected from the forest which are used to sell in weekly markets and roadsides of the study areas. Among the enumerated wild mushrooms, the highest price was observed with “Rugda/Phutka” mushrooms (Astraeus hygrometricus). It was noticed that Termitomyces microcarpus is the first choice of the sellers and buyers too. The Amanita egregia is also very much popular among the buyers due to good yield and palatability. The paper highlights the importance of wild mushrooms as Non-Timber Forest Produces and recommends that there is need of value addition of economically important wild mushrooms for sustainable livelihood opportunities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Morpho-Anatomical Investigation of Leaves of Triumfetta tomentosa Boj. and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.

Robert, Imo U., Sam, Sunday M., Okon, Joseph E.

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i430244

The plant species Triumfetta tomentosa Boj. and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq using Standard procedures were investigated on morphological characters. The morphological assessment of the species revealed great similarities in their habit, indumentum, nature and type of stem and leaf apices. The differences were seen in their habitat and the number of flowers in the racemose inflorescence. In the foliar anatomy of the species, anisocytic stomata type, the presence of stellate trichomes on both surfaces and the presence of calcium crystals were common in both species. The differences existed in the amphistomatic distribution in T. rhomboidea and hypostomatic distribution in T. tomentosa. The number, length and width of the stomata, stomata pore and guard cells, the number, length and width of the epidermal cells of and the length of trichomes varied greatly in both species. A combination of morphological and anatomical data alongside others bring about authentication in the delimitation of taxa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Soil and Vegetable (Capsicum annum) Collected from Two Sampling Sites (Farmland and Dumpsite) and the Effect on Plant DNA

A. A. Adu, O. J. Aderinola, A. A. Ogbe, T. F. Giwa, I. O. Salaam

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i430245

The levels of heavy metals and their effect on the DNA of Capsicum annuum collected from dumpsite (in Ojota) and farmland (in Badagry) in Lagos, Nigeria, were examined using standard procedures.

The results of concentration of heavy metals in the soil for the farmland and dumpsite respectively are: Zn (882.0 ±0.006mg/kg, 14316.8±1.009mg/kg), Cr (2.006 ±0.002mg/kg,3.888± 0.002mg/kg), Cd (0.098 ± 0.001mg/kg, 0.644 ± 0.002mg/kg), Cu (0.206± 0.001mg/kg, 0.997 ± 0.001mg/kg) and Pb (0.005 ± 0.003mg/kg, 0.843± 0.002mg/kg) respectively. The values of N (3153.6± 0.008mg/kg, 4191.2± 0.006mg/kg), P (7598.3 ± 0.009mg/kg, 8794.5 ± 0.003mg/kg) and K (113.56 ± 0.004mg/kg, 532.12 ± 0.004mg/kg) were recorded in the soil from farmland and dumpsite respectively. While the values of N, P, and K in soil from dumpsite were higher (p<0.05) than that from farmland, the only value of Zn in the soil of dumpsite was significantly higher than in soil from farmland. Similarly, the values of all metals except Zn recorded in the leaf, stem, and root of C. annuum showed no significant difference between the sample collected from dumpsites and farmland. The values of Zn in leaf, stem, and root of C. annuum from farmland were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the dumpsite.  The DNA bands of the Capsicum annuum from the control site have a clearer band spectrum than that from the dumpsite site, however, there was no DNA mutation. In conclusion, C. annuum collected from both farmland (in Badagry) and dumpsite (in Ojota) contained minerals and heavy metals whose concentrations were still within standard permissible limits. Thus, C. annuum from both sites is safe for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation on Bacteriological and Physicochemical Properties of ‘Ofada” Rice

O. O. Efunwole, T. A. Ihum, O. R. Adebayo, A. A. Adedokun, I. A. Adetuberu, O. A. Oladipupo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i430247

Rice (Oryza sativa) is an important annual crop in Nigeria. It is one of the major staples, which can provide a nation’s population with the required food security of 2,400 calories per person per day. In Nigeria rice is one of the few food items whose consumption has no cultural, religious, ethnic or geographical boundary. Fermented rice is used to produce rice wine, spaghetti and noodles. Work was then carried out on the Nigerian rice var. ITA 150 (ofada) to determine the bacteriological and physicochemical activities during fermentation. Standard microbiological and chemical methods were used. Six microorganisms were isolated which include; Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus aureus, Leuconcostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus licheniformis. It was observed that the microbial loads increased till the 72nd hours of fermentation except Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus that their loads decreased after the 72nd hours. There was an increase in the moisture, fibre, fat and protein contents, while carbohydrate, ash and anti-nutrients contents decreased. It was evident that fermentation process contributes to the bacteriological and physicochemical properties of the fermented rice in the production of another consumable product like rice wine, kunnu –zaki, spaghetti and the noodles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Sweet Potato (Ipomea batatas) Starch from South East Nigeria in the Separation of Deoxyribonucleic Acids as Alternative to Agarose Gel

Austine Okpaga Ume, Nkechi Eucharia Egbe, Philip Anthony Vantsawa, Godson Ofobuike Eze, Abdullahi Isyaku Alhaji, Zahra’u Umar, Blessing Timothy

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 33-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i430248

Gel electrophoresis technique is an indispensable tool in biotechnology and among other related fields for separation of nucleic acids and proteins. This study determined the potential of selected cassava and sweet potato starch in the separation of DNA as alternative to agarose gel. The sample pH, gelling temperature and time were determined by Light transmittance method proposed by Craig et al. [1] Standard electrophoresis procedure was used for the starch gel electrophoresis. The result showed that composite starch gelled within 18-21 minutes while agarose and agar-agar gelled after 12 minutes.  Cassava starch blended with agar-agar gelled at a temperature of 58oC while sweet potato starch blended with agar-agar gelled between 35oC - 47oC. Agarose and agar-agar maintained 54oC and 53oC respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in pH value of the composite starch when compared to 1% agarose gel. Unblended starch samples did not form solid gel except when blended with some amount of agar-agar or agarose powder. Cassava and sweet potato composite starch formed good gel strength at 3% (2.2 g of starch and 0.8 g of agar-agar) but solid gel at 4% (3.6 g of starch and 0.8 g of agar-agar). This study demonstrated the possibilities for agarose cost reduction by 60% when cassava starch (3.6 g) was blended with 0.4 g of agarose. The cassava composite starch (4%) separated DNA molecules comparably to that of 1% agarose. Therefore, the use of these cheaper, accessible and readily available blended starch sources is highly recommended for separation of biomolecules such as DNA.