Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Invasive Alien Dicot Species in Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India

Smriti Raj Verma, Sangeeta Joshi, D. S. Rawat

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 7-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i1292

Objective: Regular assessment of invasive species is essential to understand the status of flora in any area. The current study is the result of a floristic survey of wild dicotyledonous angiospermic plants of Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.

Methods: For the study, field surveys were conducted from the year 2016-2022. Plant specimens were collected, dried, poisoned and herbarium were prepared. Specimens were identified with the help of various Floras.

Results: Anthropogenic stresses on the vegetation are on high in the area in the form of intensive agricultural farming, industrial activities, university campus activities, roads and traffic, parks and playgrounds and continuous removal of natural wild vegetation. The natural tarai vegetation of the region is nearly lost or found in patches while a major portion of the vegetation is composed of invasive alien plant species (IAPS). Two assessments of invasive alien angiosperm species have been carried out in the area during the last decade in 2011 and 2015. These assessments reported the presence of 52 species [16] and 85 species [17] of invasive alien dicot plants. The current study, however, reveals the presence of 105 invasive alien dicot species (IADS) from the study region. This large increment of more than 23 % in the IADS in such a short span of time reflects the poor state of natural vegetation and high degree of anthropogenic activities in the area. The nativity analysis revealed the dominance of South American elements (53.33%) in the invasive alien dicot flora of the study region, followed by Tropical American, African and North American elements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Status of Borehole Water in Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria

S. A. Adegoke

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 20-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i1293

Transmission of pathogens through water is of grave public health concern. Bacteria are of major concern because of the pathogenicity and etiologic agents of life threatening infections.

The multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial status of the borehole water samples from Kogi State University, Anyigba was studied. The samples ten each from point A and B were collected from two main borehole water sources and analyzed for MDR bacteria. A total of seven isolates (Echerichia coli, Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp, Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus sp, Streptococcus sp and Salmonella sp) were identified by standard microbiological methods. Phenotypic identification of antibiotic resistance profile using the disk diffusion method was carried out. Pseudomonas sp, Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. were found to be 100% resistant to all the imported antibiotics while 55.6% and 66.7% resistance were recorded for Salmonella sp. and Bacillus sp respectively. Percentage resistance to all indigenous antibiotics recorded were 40% for Pseudomonas sp., 30% for Salmonella sp, 40% for Escherichia coli, 30% for Klebsiella sp, 20% for Staphylococcus sp, 20% for Streptococcus sp, and 10% for Bacillus sp. The results showed that all the isolates were multi drug resistant (MDR) and the presence of these organisms poses great risk to the university community as well as individuals that consume the water and use for other domestic purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economically Important Wild Edible Mushrooms of Bonai Forest Division, Odisha, India

Sanjeet Kumar, Arun Kumar Mishra, Sanath Kumar N., Sweta Mishra

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i1294

Bonai Forest Division is rich in flora and faunal species. The fertile forest-dominated areas provide a good platform for growing wild mushrooms. The locals collect them for food, medicine, and economic purposes. Addressing the economic value of wild mushrooms will provide a platform for value addition and management of forest & wildlife in Bonai Forest Division, Odisha. Considering the importance of wild mushrooms in the day-to-day lives of tribal communities of the division, an attempt has been made to enumerate the mushrooms having economic values. A survey was carried out during 2021-2022 in 7 ranges. 15 wild mushrooms were identified as having economic value. Rugda mushrooms are the most popular of the 15, and can be sold for up to Rs. 1800 per kg. The present study brings attention to the urgent need for value additions to these mushrooms for the sustainable development of the local communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Study on Aerial Parts of Hyoscyamus boveanus (Dunal) Asch. & Schweinf

Magda Tohamy Ibrahim, Sheren Fares Saad, Mahmoud M. Nasser, Samih I. El–Dahmy

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 41-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i1295

Family Solanaceae is one of the largest families in the plant kingdom. A family of 98 genera and over 2700 species; tropical and temperate; herbs, shrubs or small trees.

Secondary metabolites of Solanaceae plants, sharing tropane skeleton as a common structural feature, sharply divided into two classes: tropine and ecgonine derivatives. The first group, represented by well-known alkaloids: atropine and scopolamine, which are considered to be model anticholinergic drugs, continues to provide inspiration in the search for more selective muscarinic receptor antagonists. This work, aim to study the biological effect of Hyoscyamus boveanus alkaloid fraction as Antimuscarenic, mydriatic and anti microbial agent. Basal alkaloid fraction was isolated from collected wild plant by using authentic atropine (sigma USA). Fifteen rabbits weighing 1700 – 2000 gram used in this study, divided into three groups (5 each); control (solvent) group, standard (atropine) group and the Hyoscyamus boveanus Dunal basic alkaloid fraction group. Two cm rabbit intestine muscle was isolated to study anti spasmodic activity of the basic alkaloid fraction of Hyoscyamus boveanus Dunal. As well as, anti microbial activity of Hyoscyamus boveanus basal alkaloid fraction was studied. The results revealed that Hyoscyamus boveanus basal alkaloid fraction showed mydriatic, Antimuscarenic and anti microbial activity against gram negative and gram-positive bacteria. In conclusion, Hyoscyamus boveanus Dunal basic alkaloid fraction, showed mydriatic, Antimuscarenic and anti microbial activity against gram negative and gram-positive bacteria.

Open Access Review Article

The Pterygopalatine Fossa: Skeletal Framework, Communications and Content

Georges Aoun, Wissam Sharrouf

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i130249

The pterygopalatine fossa, located on both sides of the skull, is a neurovascular crossroad between the middle cranial fossa, the orbit, the nasopharynx, the nasal and oral cavities, and the infratemporal fossa. It is considered a strategically complex region given its small size and the numerous structures that pass through it. This review aims to describe its skeletal framework, content, and communications with other regions.