Open Access Original Research Article

Ecological Characterization of Invasive Alien Species and Associated Abiotic Factors of Three Islands in the Pool Malebo in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Michael Tshibangu Mukendi, Henri Kunzi Mbale, Pisco Munkolo Menga, Masens-da-Musa Yung, Jean Meti Ntumba, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Félicien Luyeye Lukoki

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430191

Nowadays, invasive alien species are causing more and more environmental problems in several water bodies around the world, in Africa and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In October 2020, a floristic inventory was carried out around three islands of the Congo River (Molondo, Mipongo and Japon) at the Pool Malebo in Kinshasa. The study focused on the identification and behavior of alien species along with associated abiotic factors in the Malebo Pool of the Congo River in Kinkole, Kinshasa.

The study used a simple random sampling design to select different sites where samples were collected after a direct observation. We collected invasive species in the middle of the Congo River and to achieve that, we used canoe depending on the location of each site. Recorded species were classified either alien species or invasive alien species according to the status in the study region. The identification of collected species was performed according to APG III. Seeing the way these species invade the environment and how they disturb the ecology of rivers, the physico-chemical characteristics of waters were measured between 8:00 am and 3:00 pm with the appropriate electronic probe for each parameter. For each parameter, the comparison between the sites was carried out using the ANOVA test with XLSTAT 2013 software.

The findings show that 19 species have been identified as invasive alien species out of which, four were dominant, namely Echinochloa pyramidalis, Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes. Considering the physico-chemical parameters, no significant differences were observed for the temperature (F=0.42 and p=0.66), conductivity (F=1.55 and p=0.25) and turbidity (F=2.28 and p=0.14) for the three sites. While the pH (F=4.98; p=0.026; LSD=0.361), dissolved oxygen (F=12; p=0.001; LSD=3.65) and salinity (F=4.06; p= 0.04; LSD= 1.69) showed significant variation in the three sites. The formation of vegetation groups around these islands in the Congo River at the Pool Malebo in Kinshasa  would also be justified by the influence of these parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Constituents and Toxicity of the Ethanol Extract of Ricinus communis (L.) in Drosophila melanogaster

Tran Thi Tu Ai, Huynh Hong Phien, Tran Thanh Men

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430192

The study aimed to evaluate the toxic ability of the ethanol extract of Ricinus communis (L.) in Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly model. The toxicity was determined through different criteria, including the ability to cause harmful effects on second instar larvae, reproduction, growth and development, and the movement ability of fruit flies. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Ricinus communis expressed its high toxicity against 2nd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaste with the LD50 value of 64.63 mg/mL. In addition, Ricinus communis extract reduced the growth rate, reproduction and decreased the movement ability of Drosophila melanogaster. The total flavonoid and polyphenol content of the ethanol extract of Ricinus communis were 338.26 mgQE/g extract and 160.43 mgGAE/g extract, respectively. These findings contribute to confirming the toxic properties of ethanol extract of Ricinus communis and their potential use in preventing and controlling pest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Richardia brasiliensis Collected in Southern-Benin: Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity

Kamirou Chabi-Sika, Haziz Sina, Bawa Boya, Farid Bade, Tryphose Hounnou, Marius Eric Badoussi, Arlette Adjatin, Lamine Baba-Moussa

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430193

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the R. brasiliensis aerial part extracts collected in southern-Benin.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening was performed by a differential precipitation staining method. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were made using conventional method with water and ethanol as solvent. The obtained extracts were used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin infections and ten reference strains by the solid-medium diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined by the liquid macro-dilution method. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts was evaluated on Artemia salina larvae obtained by hatching.

Results: The phytochemical screening showed a strong presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and a medium presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins and mucilage’s. The extraction yields vary according to the solvent: water (15.5%) and ethanol (10.30%). The two extracts variously (p<0.001) inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin infections and four reference strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Proteus mirabilis A24974, Escherichia coli ATCC25922). However, there is no difference (p > 0.05) in inhibition of strains growth between 24h and 48h. The largest diameter (21±0.75 mm) of inhibition with the reference strains was obtained with P. aeruginosa by action of the aqueous extract. Regarding Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin infections, the largest diameter of inhibition is about 19.25±2.75 mm obtained with strains isolated from ulcers. The average mics of 2.81 mg/ml and 2.08 mg/ml were obtained respectively for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts in the presence of the reference strains. The LC50 determination obtained using the regression line is 0.36 mg/ml for the aqueous extract and 1.16 mg/ml for the ethanolic extract.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract is more effective because of its action spectrum. This extract can be used for the development of a soap or ointment to fight against skin infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Heavy Metal Characteristics (Pb and Cu) in Wideng Crab Tissue from the Gonjol River, Demak

Hugi Cerlyawati, Slamet Isworo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 34-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430194

Objective and Background: The Gonjol river serves as a lifeline for the communities surrounding Demak's brackish water ponds. Currently, factory waste is poisoning rivers. The purpose of this research was to investigate the levels of heavy metals Pb and Cu in Wideng crab tissue, water, and sediment in the Gonjol river's upper course and estuary.

Methods: This study was place from January to March 2020. Heavy metal concentration was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The linear regression method was used to analyze the data. 

Results: Except for Cu in upstream and estuary sediments, the concentration of Pb and Cu in the waters, sediments, and Wideng crab tissue remained below the acceptable limits. Heavy metals Pb and Cu in both sediment and tissue did not reveal a significant association in the upstream and estuary, although there was a correlation between water and tissue. There is no association between silt and water in the upstream and estuary. The river's quality is based on the Decree of the Minister of the Environment of the Republic of Indonesia No.115 of 2003, which places it in category C, which means it has moderate levels of Pb and Cu pollution. While tissue and sediment levels are below the tolerance limit.

Conclusion: The state of the Gonjol River is a source of concern, particularly the circumstances of Cu and Pb, which allow bioaccumulation in the future, posing a threat to the ecosystem and the communities surrounding it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Phytohormones and Alternative Sources on the Propagation of Ternstroemia cameroonensis Cheek. by Marcotting in the Lebialem Highlands, Cameroon

Francoline Jong Nkemnkeng, Mendi Grace Anjah, Walter Ndam Tacham, Christiana Ngyete Nyikob Mbogue, Victor-François Nguetsop

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430195

Marcotting is a method of vegetative propagation which still finds its relevance in the present day forest management and routine practice to produce viable seedlings for the regeneration of Ternstroemia cameroonensis. There is dearth of information regarding the propagation of T. cameroonensis by marcotting. Hence effects of phytohormone application (Indole-3-acetc acid, Indole-3-butyric acid) and alternative sources (coconut water) on the propagation of T. cameroonensis by marcotting were investigated in the Lebialem Highlands. Mortality rates, number of roots, root length as well as marcotts position in the crown was evaluated. The propagation trials were carried under natural environmental conditions. Marcotts had an overall survival percentage of 35.41%. Those established at the middle of the crown had the highest survival percentage (15.27%) followed by those at the lower (11.80 %). Also marcotts established on branches with larger diameter (4-6 cm) and shorter length (50 cm) had the highest survival percentage (20.13 and 19.44 respectively). Again marcotts treated with IBA and CW had the best performance compared to other pre-treatments. According to the result, T. cameroonensis can be amenable through marcotts. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Role of Different Local Spices on Lambda Cyhalothrin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Mice

Eme Efioanwan Orlu, Adetutu Olubunmi Obulor

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 61-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430196

Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the protective role of different local spices on lambda cyhalothrin induced nephrotoxicity in male mice

Experimental Design: A completely randomized experimental design using standard methods for analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Animal house, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology of Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo Port Harcourt, Nigeria. GPS 4o47'50''N 6o58'49''E. This study lasted for 35days.

Methodology: The experimental animals were separated into 6 groups (A-F) of seven mice each. Group A served as the control and Group B – F served as the test groups. At the end of the 35 day treatment period, feed was withdrawn from the mice 24 hours before termination of the experiment. Blood samples for analysis of kidney function test were collected from each mouse by ocular puncture into plain tubes. The blood was allowed to clot and centrifuged at 2500g to separate the serum from the cells. Total protein was analyzed using the spectrophotometric method of biuret, Bradford and erythrosine – b, albumin was estimated, creatinine and urea was done using enzymatic method. Vital organs were removed and weighed for organosomatic indices. Histological sections of the kidney were mounted on slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Photomicrographs were generated.

Results: There is no significant difference (P=0.05) between the organ weight and bodyweight in group A compared with the treatment groups. The values of Albumin, total protein, urea, creatinine and total bilirubin increased significantly in group B administered lambda cyhalothrin alone but decreased in groups administered the local spices. Histopathological analysis of the kidney shows the regular structure of the kidney architecture in group A, tubular degeneration and several vacuolations were observed in group B. However, less degeneration of the epithelial cells, regeneration of renal tubular epithelium were observed in groups C- F.

Conclusion: Based on the results from liver biomarkers and histological micrographs from this study, pronounced degeneration was observed in the kidney cells exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin only. Moreover, all spices used had a regenerating ability on the kidney tubules. It is advocated therefore that consumption of this spices either singly or in combination should be encouraged especially for those exposed to insecticides poisoning

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Different Local Spices on Hepatic Functions in Male Mice Exposed to Lambda-Cyhalothrin

Adetutu Olubunmi Obulor, Eme Efioanwan Orlu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 71-81
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430197

Aim:  This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of different spices on hepatic function in male mice exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT).

Experimental design: A completely randomized experimental design using standard methods for analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Animal house, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology of Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo Port Harcourt, Nigeria. GPS 4o47'50''N 6o58'49''E. This study lasted for 35days. 

Methodology: Forty-two male mice were randomly selected into six (6) groups A-F (n=7/group). Group B were gavage Cyhalothin (LCT) alone. Group C, D, and E were gavaged 10mg/kg/bw of  LCT and 20mg/kg/bw/day of aqueous extract of Tetrepleura tetraptera, Piper guineense, and Xylopia aethiopicae respectively, while group F received 10mg/kg/bw of LCT together with the combination of the three spices. Vital organs were removed and weighed for organosomatic indices. Blood samples were collected by ocular puncture and analysis for liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes carried out. Vital organs were removed and weighed for organosomatic indices. Histological sections of the liver were mounted on slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Photomicrographs were generated.

Results: Results show a significant (p=0.05) increase in  Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration in mice exposed to lambda cyhalothrin alone but a significant decrease observed in groups coadministered the spices. Also the level of all enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) considered decreased in group with lambda cyhalothrin (LCT) alone while there was significant (p=0.05) increase in groups coadministered Tetrapleura tetraptera, Piper guineense and Xylopia aethiopica. Liver photomicrograph of animals exposed to lambda cyhalothrin alone shows lymphocyte infiltration in the portal vein while  fewer lesions and regenerating hepatocytes were observed in groups coadministered the different local spices. It is concluded therefore that lambda Cyhalothrin induces liver injury and oxidative stress in the exposed mice. All the spices used in this study have significant antioxidant activity against liver injury due to their free radical scavenging potential although the  efficacy  is highest in combination of spices> Tetrapleura teraptera> Piper guineense > Xylopia aethiopica. For efficacy, individuals may use the combination of all spices, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Piper guineense and small doses of Xylopia aethiopica singly as an antioxidant supplement to counter the toxic effect of insecticides exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Bilateral Ovariectomy (OVX) on Thermoregulation and Blood Constituents in Adult Nubian Goats (Capra hircus)

Initisar Hassan Saeed, Abdalla Mohamed Abdelatif, Ahmed Omer Alameen

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 82-101
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430198

Aims: This study was designed to investigate the effects of bilateral surgical ovariectomy on thermoregulation and blood constituents in adult Nubian goats.

Materials and Methods: Twenty female goats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, group A served as control and group B was subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) by standard surgical method and monitored for 4 weeks. The effect of OVX on rectal temperature (Tr), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), body weight (BW) and blood components were investigated. The data were analyzed using an independent sample T-test.

Results: In OVX group, both Tr and RR decreased during the experimental period. Tr decreased (p<0.05) at week 4 and (HR) (p<0.01) increased at week 2 in OVX group. The packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBCs) and haemoglobin concentration (Hb) declined (p<0.05) in OVX group at week 1. Also, in OVX group, the total leukocyte count (TLC) increased (p<0.01) at week 1 and neutrophils ratio (p<0.05) at week 2. Both total protein and albumin levels in OVX group were decreased significantly (p<0.01) in weeks 1 and 2. Glucose level increased (p<0.001) at week 1 in OVX group. The serum levels of urea, GOT and GPT of OVX group were relatively higher compared with control group values.

Conclusions: The study concluded that ovariectomy induced variable effects on thermoregulation, haematological and serum biochemical parameters in adult Nubian goats .

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Pregnancy Stages on Thyroid Status and Blood Metabolites in Desert Ewes Raised under Range Conditions in West Kordufan State, Sudan

I. A. Abderhman, A. M. Abdelatif, W. E. Elmgboul, O. H. Ali, M. H. Ahmed, A. O. Alameen

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 102-112
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430199

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the stages of pregnancy in two ecotypes of sheep, located in different grazing areas on thyroid status and certain blood metabolites. Eighty clinically healthy ewes (40 Hamari and 40 Kabashi ecotype) aged 2-5 years were used in the study. For each ecotype, the ewes were divided into four groups according to the reproductive status. Group (A): 10 ewes non-pregnant non-lactating (dry) served as the control. Group (B): 10 ewes in the early stage of pregnancy (first trimester). Group (C): 10 ewes in mid-stage of pregnancy (second trimester). Group (D): 10 ewes in the late stage of pregnancy (third trimester). Blood samples were used to measure serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), plasma glucose concentration and serum triglyceride levels. The study detected that Hamari ecotype was supplied with salt and minerals block during watering by its owners. The results showed that in both ecotypes, the serum TSH levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher during the early stage of pregnancy then, it decreased significantly (P<0.01) as the pregnancy advanced. While serum T4 levels were higher during the early stage of pregnancy, then it decreased significantly (P<0.01) during the late pregnancy in both ecotypes. Serum T3 level was significantly (P<0.001) higher in both ecotypes during early and mid-pregnancy, then declined to the lowest value during the late stage. The plasma glucose level was significantly (P<0.001) lower during mid and late pregnancy in both ecotypes. There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum triglyceride level when pregnancy advanced in both ecotypes. Kabashi ecotype showed significantly higher serum triglyceride levels in the control group (P<0.001) during early pregnancy stage (P<0.01) and mid pregnancy stage (P<0.05) compared to the values of serum triglyceride levels in Hamari ecotypes. This study indicated that pregnancy altered thyroid status in both ecotypes, however, the influence of pregnancy on the thyroid status was less in the Hamary ecotype which supplemented by mineral and salt blocks. Therefore, supplementation with minerals during pregnancy might enhance the metabolic profile on the natural pasture grazing.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Mycoflora and Public Health Risks of Some Food Materials Sold in Lugbe Markets, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria

B. B. Adamu, O. A. Onuh, I. J. Okon, R. R. Ideh, J. H. Ahmadu, Z. Labbo, G. B. Olukotun

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 113-119
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v13i430200

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by many species of fungi. They are natural contaminants of food (feed) commodities where they cause significant risks to human and animal health. In this work, some food items; Roasted Groundnut Kernel, Dried smoked fish, Grounded melon, Ogbono (Irvingia gabonensis) and Date palm fruits were directly cultured on modified PDA (Chloramphenicol; 0.1g/l and Cycloheximide; 0.5mg/ml) and the respective food-associated molds were isolated and identified microscopically by the use of Lacto-phenol cotton blue for their morphological characterisation. The results showed the presence of Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus, Mucor, Fusarium and Cladosporium with Cladosporium having the highest occurrence in Melon flour (38%) followed by Aspergillus spp. on ground nut (25%) and Mucor spp. having the lowest on cashew nuts (5%). The presence of indicator organisms such as Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. parasiticus) renders foods potentially unwholesome because of the likelihood production of one of the most poisonous mycotoxins (aflatoxin). Poor storage, moisture conditions cause growth and production of unacceptable aflatoxin levels. Some foods are consumed without further processing or under processed. Based on our study, proper food drying and protection from spores are recommended safety preventive measures. This research should create awareness on the dangers associated with the consumption of such food materials especially the ready-to-eat ones.