##### Detection and Enumeration of Coliforms in Drinking Water Sources in the Selected Barangay in Santa Maria, Davao Occidental Philippines

Shaira D. Cambarihan, Emylle Ruth P. Patricio, Leonel P. Lumogdang

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i130227

The study aimed to determine the presence of fecal and nonfecal coliforms in selected drinking water sources of Santa Maria, Davao Occidental. Three (3) barangays were purposively identified as sampling sites, namely: Barangay Pongpong, Barangay San Isidro, and Barangay San Roque, where spring water, Jetmatic, and manual water pump are the sources of drinking water.

The study was conducted at Sta Maria, Davao Occidental Philippines from August 2021 to December 2021.The water samples were collected aseptically from the identified reservoir in the drinking water of the selected barangay of Sta Maria, Davao Occidental. The collected samples were brought to the SPAMAST Microbiology Laboratory. One (1) mL of sample was plated aseptically in the coliform Petrifilm. The plated water samples were incubated at 35-37 degrees Celcius for 24 hours. Colonies in the Petrifilm were counted manually and recorded as colony-forming units (CFU).

Microbial analysis detected the presence of total coliforms on the drinking water reservoir from the spring water source from barangay Pongpong, manual water pump and spring water source from barangay San Isidro and the manual water pump from barangay San Roque. Meanwhile, noOccidental, Philippines. Generally, the drinking water sources of the three (3) barangays exceeded the national standard set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Periodic monitoring on the drinking water sources in the identified barangays is highly recommended.

##### Investigation of the Pectin Degradation Ability of Hominibacterium faecale Strain SF3T Isolated from Human Feces

Noori Borhanudin, Fu Li, Mohammad Eshaq Faiq, Lei Cheng

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i130232

Pectin is one of the most important dietary fibers as a prebiotic to determine the composition of human gut microbiome. The study was designed to investigate the pectin degradation ability of Hominibacterium faecale strain SF3T, its isolated from human feces and cultivated with different concentration pectin under anaerobic conditions in vitro. The growth ratio of strain SF3T formed in batch culture was examined every 10 h during the 60-h incubation time using the spectrophotometer, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas-chromatography. The pure culture of Hominibacterium faecale pectin degradation activity was present and commonly increases the growth value of strain SF3T after pectin fermentation. Regarding volatile fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate levels rapidly raised after 30 h of incubation. The results suggest that pectin fermentation displays the greatest contribution for human health and confirm that pectin degradation leads to the production of acetate, butyrate and propionate.

##### Pharmacognostic and Taxonomic Studies of Leaf and Stem of Launaea taraxacifolia (Willd) Amin Ex C. Jeffrey (Compositae)

Romanus A. Umoh, Imoh I. Johnny, Nsima A. Andy, Anwanabasi E. Udoh, Inyang J. Udoh, Otobong E. Umanah, Winnie E. Emeh

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 8-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i130228

Launaea taraxacifolia from the family Compositae is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertention, cancer, malaria, bacterial infections and arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate  pharmacognostic and taxonomic parameters such as microscopy, micromeritics, chemomicroscopy, fluorescence, soluble-extractive values and ash values of  the leaves and stems of  this plant. The plant was collected, identified, air-dried, weighed and subjected to evaluation using standard procedures. The results showed that, from microscopy: the stomatal distribution was amphistomatic and the stomatal type were anisocytic and anomocytic on the abaxial surface and anomocytic on adaxial surface with T-pieces on the stomata. The stomatal index was 18.7% on the abaxial surface and 11.9% on the adaxial surface. The stomatal number on the abaxial surface was 13.2 (15.6±0.55) 18.1 and 18 (26.5±2.08) 36 for adaxial surface. Results of the micromeritics properties of the powdered leaf and stem samples were bulk volume of 38.67±0.17 and 51.33±0.33, tapped volume of 29.83±0.17 and 34.0±0.00, bulk density of 0.26±0.00 and 0.20±0.00, tapped density of 0.34±0.00 and 0.29±0.00, angle of repose of 36⁰ and 43⁰, Carr’s index of 22.7% and 33.78%, Hausner’s ratio of 1.30±0.01 and 1.15±0.01. The micromeritics indicated that the powder had a fair flow and for chemomicroscopy the powder contained  lignin, mucilage, oil and protein. The fluorescence properties determined revealed different colours under different ultraviolet lights. The water-soluble, methanol-soluble, ethanol-soluble extractive values were 35% w/w, 14% w/w and 16%w/w for leaf and 18% w/w, 8% w/w, and 9% w/w for stem respectively. The moisture content of the leaf and stem were 16% w/w and 11% w/w. Total, acid-insoluble and water- soluble ash values were 17.7% w/w, 1.3% w/w and 8.3% w/w for leaf and 6.3% w/w, 0.3% w/w and 4.7% w/w for the stem respectively. This data obtained from the pharmacognostic and taxonomic studies provide information for the identity, purity and quality of L. taraxacifolia.

##### White-rumped Vulture’s Habitat Suitability Prediction using MaxEnt in Arunachal Pradesh

Abprez Thungwon Kimsing, Jacob Ngukir, Talo Biju, Daniel Mize

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 18-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i130229

Few reports showed that White-rumped vulture is present in Arunachal Pradesh. However, they were reported from a few places only. Such sightings suggest that either the region is not explored completely or the habitats are not suitable for the species. Therefore, knowing and predicting the habitat suitability of WRV and revealing the relative contribution of environmental variables determining such distribution can be important for their protection and conservation. The present study was based on the current distribution of WRV in Arunachal Pradesh that we had surveyed from 2016 to 2020. We followed the road count and point count methods to obtain primary occurrence data. Also, secondary data on occurrence records and data on environmental variables (landscape variables, anthropogenic variables, and climatic variables) were obtained and used. The data were processed using ArcMap. 29 occurrence records (filtered) and 11 environmental variables were used to build the prediction model using maximum entropy (MaxEnt). The MaxEnt predicted model showed high accuracy with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value equals to 0.95 and True Skill Statistics value equals to 0.87. Of the total area, only 2629.63 km2 (3.20 %) is suitable for WRV while the majority of the area is unsuitable (79542.84 km2) (96.79 %). The elevation (32.2%), land use land cover (31.7%), and normalized difference vegetation index of November (26.7%) were the most influencing variables impacting the distribution of WRV. Among bioclimatic variables, the mean temperature of the warmest quarter and precipitation of the wettest quarter had the highest contribution. This work is the first attempt to understand the spatial distribution of WRV and the environmental factors associated with their distribution in the state. The findings can be relevant for designing conservation efforts to conserve this species in the state.

##### $$200 ^{th}$$ Birth Anniversary of the Genetics Founder Gregor Mendel; Art Medals

Victor Barshteyn, Yaroslav Blume

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2022/v15i130230

Objective: To explore and introduce into scientific circulation art medals ˗ tangible historical sources studied by medal art, a section of the special historical discipline of numismatics, related to the life and work of Gregor Mendel.

Place and Duration of the Study: Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, from January to April 2022.

Methodology: Both general scientific (historical, logical) and special (subject-chronological, retrospective) methods were used in the work. Numismatic and biological literature, materials of international numismatic auctions, and websites of world mints have been studied.

Results: Art medals of the Czech Republic, the USA, Germany, Austria, Portugal and the European Community relating to life and scientific heritage of Gregor Mendel have been studied and described.

Conclusion: The study has become a new step in the development of the history of biological science, supplementing the knowledge of the artistic reflection of the origins of genetics in the art of medal. Material historical sources ˗ art medals, enabled us to capture the pages of the biography and scientific work of Gregor Mendel in a new plane, introducing the medals into scientific (biological) circulation.