Open Access Original Research Article

Previously Unacknowledged Potential Factors in Catastrophic Bee and Insect Die-off Arising from Coal Fly Ash Geoengineering

Mark Whiteside, J. Marvin Herndon

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/43268

Aims: We investigate previously unacknowledged potentially major contributory factors in global catastrophic bee and insect die-off that arise from the use of aerosolized coal fly ash (CFA) for covert weather and climate manipulation. We also present forensic evidence that CFA is the primary material used in atmospheric aerosol geoengineering operations.

Methods: We conducted extensive literature research and additionally utilized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Results: The primary components of CFA, silicon, aluminum, and iron, consisting in part of magnetite (Fe3O4), all have important potential toxicities to insects. Many of the trace elements in CFA are injurious to insects; several of them (e.g., arsenic, mercury, and cadmium) are used as insecticides. Toxic particulates and heavy metals in CFA contaminate air, water, and soil and thus impact the entire biosphere. Components of CFA, including aluminum extractable in a chemically-mobile form, have been shown to adversely affect insects in terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial environments. Both the primary and trace elements in CFA have been found on, in, and around insects and the plants they feed on in polluted regions around the world. Magnetite from CFA may potentially disrupt insect magnetoreception. Chlorine and certain other constituents of aerosolized CFA potentially destroy atmospheric ozone thus exposing insects to elevated mutagenicity and lethality levels of UV-B and UV-C solar radiation.

Conclusions: It is necessary to expose and halt atmospheric aerosol geoengineering to prevent further gross contamination of the biosphere. As insect populations decline, bird populations will decline, and ultimately so will animal populations, including humans. The gradual return of insects when the aerial spraying is stopped will be the best evidence that aerosolized CFA is, in fact, a leading cause of the current drastic decline in insect population and diversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecotoxicological Assessment of Nigeria Locally Refined Diesel and Kerosene on Aspergillus niger a Key Fungal Pollution Biomarker

Renner Renner Nrior, Nedie Patience Akani, Alfred Wilcox

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/43896

Aim: To evaluate the effect of locally refined diesel and kerosene on Aspergillus niger a key fungal pollution biomarker in three aquatic bodies (marine, brackish and freshwater).

Study Design: The study employs experimental examination and statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place of Study: Fresh water, brackish water, and marine water samples were collected in sterile bottles from Ugama Ekede Stream, Ugama Ekede River and at the foot of the Atlantic ocean in Udun Ama all in Andoni Local Government Area Rivers State, using sterile sampling bottles. These samples were transported to the microbiological laboratory with ice pack within 24 hours for both isolation of test organisms and toxicity.

Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used; toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing locally refined diesel and kerosene at concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%, tested for durations of 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h. The cultures were incubated at 35°C for 48 hours. LC50 was determined.

Results: The results specify that percentage (%) logarithm of mortality of Aspergillus niger increases with increased toxicants concentration and exposure time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the locally refined diesel and kerosene increases in the following order: (Note: The higher the LC50, the lower the toxic effect. Aspergillus niger in locally refined diesel in fresh water (47.77%) < Aspergillus niger in locally refined kerosene in fresh water (48.02%) <Aspergillus niger in locally refined diesel in brackish water (48.09%) < Aspergillus niger in locally refined kerosene in brackish water (48.14%) < Aspergillus niger in locally refined diesel in marine water (48.09%) < Aspergillus niger in locally refined kerosene in marine water (47.98%).

Conclusion: Locally refined diesel in fresh water (LC50 = 47.77%) is the most toxic, having the lowest LC50while locally refined kerosene in brackish water (LC50 = 48.14%) have the lowest toxicity effect. These results show that locally refined diesel and kerosene can inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger in an aquatic ecosystem; noting that Aspergillus niger is one of the most effective biodegrading fungi in ecological biogeochemical cycles, pollutant removal/remediation and a key fungal pollution biomarker.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility of Citrobacter koseri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumonia to Crude Extracts of Beta vulgaris (Linn) (Beetroot)

J. O. Ihuma, P. A. Bassi, L. Y. Adogo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/44641

Aim: The aim of this study is to ascertain the antimicrobial action of crude extracts of Beta vulgaris (Beetroot) against Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Citrobacter koseri.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Biological Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, between July to August, 2017.

Materials and Methods: Beetroot samples were obtained from GaddaBiu market Jos. The isolates were obtained from the Zanklin research Institute, Bingham University. Crude extracts of Beetroot bulb was obtained by soaking, boiling and maceration, which was used to determine the susceptibility of the microbial isolates to the extracts.

Results: The highest mean zone of inhibition obtained was 6.67mm from application of boiled crude extracts of Beta vulgaris to Citrobacter koseri. The highest mean zone of inhibition of antibiotics was 43.67 mm observed from ciprofloxacin upon its application on Salmonella typhi. The lowest mean zone of inhibition was 23.00 mm obtained from gentamicin upon its introduction on C. koseri.

Conclusion: The relative antibacterial activity of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) against bacteria has indicated a wide potential as an effective plant which can serve as an alternative to resistant antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aerosolized Coal Fly Ash: A Previously Unrecognized Primary Factor in the Catastrophic Global Demise of Bird Populations and Species

Mark Whiteside, J. Marvin Herndon

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/44911

Objectives: Bird populations and species world-wide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale. Forensic evidence is consistent with coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste product of coal-burning, being the main aerosol particulate utilised in atmospheric geoengineering. The principal objective of this paper is to disclose previously unrecognised factors, arising from CFA, which underlie the catastrophic and global decline of birds.

Methods: We utilised inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and conducted extensive literature research.

Results: New data presented here confirm the unmistakable footprint of CFA in atmospheric precipitation and air-drop samples. Review of the literature reveals the increasing importance of air pollution on global bird populations. Aerosolized CFA, a particularly toxic form of air pollution, contains multiple metals and elements well-known to adversely affect all portions of the avian life cycle, in aerial, terrestrial, and marine environments. Studies from around the globe reveal systemic contamination of birds by these elements.

Conclusions: Coal fly ash, including its use in ongoing atmospheric geoengineering operations, is a major factor in global bird die-off. The accelerating decline of birds parallels the catastrophic decline of insects, due in part to the same type of aerial pollution. There is an urgent need to recognise and halt atmospheric geoengineering if there is to be any chance of reducing the drastic decline of birds and the associated degradation of natural ecosystems. If the aerial spraying can be stopped, the gradual recovery of bird populations would be the best evidence that CFA is, in fact, a leading cause of the drastic avian decline.

Open Access Original Research Article

Helminth Parasites of Gobies from Two Creeklets of the New Calabar River, Rivers State, Nigeria

A. P. Ugbomeh, S. Okere, G. M. Sokari, M. S. O. Aisien, Wala Chimela

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/45024

Aim: An animal species either serves as a definitive, a paratenic or an intermediate host to helminth parasites which may be species or site specific. This study was undertaken to investigate the intestinal helminth parasites of gobies (Bostrychus africanus and Periophthalmus papilio) collected from two creeklets of the New Calabar River.

Study Design: Fifteen samples of each species were collected (from two stations fortnightly) measured and weighed. All fish was dissected and intestinal parasites were collected, identified and counted. Physico-chemical parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and salinity) of the study areas were also measured in dry and rainy seasons. A total of 240 fish samples were examined of B. africanus (Standard length (SL) of 3 - 12 cm, weight of 30 - 36.1g), and P. papilio (SL of 5.9 - 15 cm, weight of 4 - 28.2g).

Study Period: Study was between October 2016 and May 2017.

Results:  A total of three hundred and eigthy nine (389)  nematodes (Ascaridida) were isolated from 25.4%  of the sampled fish. Bostrychus africanus had higher percentage prevalence and mean intensity (91.6 % and 23 in station 1, 21.8 % and 20.5 in station 2).  P. papilio had a lower percentage prevalence of 0.7 % and mean intensity of 4 in station 1 and 5.7 %, 8 in station 2. The nematodes were recovered from the stomach, small and large intestine of infected fish. The total lengths of infected and non-infected B. africanus from station 1 were different at P < 0.05 revealing that size affects the prevalence of parasites.

Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the relative condition factor (Kn) of infected and non-infected B. africanus and P. papilio from both stations indicating that the parasite did not affect the condition of the fish. Sex appeared to play a role in parasite prevalence in B. africanusB. africanus and P. papilio from Rumuolumeni and Bakana creeks in the Niger Delta were infected with Ascaridida nematodes in the GIT. The prevalence and intensity of infection was higher in B. africanus and at Rumuolumeni.