Open Access Original Research Article

Concomitancy of Entomophilous and Soil Transmitted Nematodes in Selected Insects

C. U. Ozeum, S. O. Nzeako, M. C. Abajue, E. M. Maduike

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i430168

Aim: To determine the occurrence of entomophilous and soil transmitted nematodes of three insect species; Zonocerus variegatus, Gryllotalpa orientalis and Mantis religiosa in Obio Akpor, Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria.

Methodology: The insect samples were collected with entomological sweep net as described by Colwell [1] and pitfall traps as described by Davies [2]. Insect samples were dissected using Stubbins’ method [3] while nematodes in the insects were isolated and identified according to Cheesborough, (2005).

Results: Two hundred and forty-eight (248) insect specimens comprising; Z. variegatus 193 (77.8%), G. orientalis 42(16.9%) and Mantis religiosa 13(5.2%) were collected from designated ecological settings based on availability and trapping efficiency. Out of the 248 insects sampled; 145 (58.5%) were infected with three genera of nematodes comprising; Ascaris lumbricoides; 17 (7.5%), Mermis Spp., 148 (65.5%) and Trilabiatus lignicolus 61(27.0%). Mermis Spp., an entomophilous nematode occurred in Z. variegatus and Mantis religiosa due to host specific factors. Nematode occurrence in the host did not indicate sex relationship (P>0.05) however, hosts age influenced parasite occurrence as older insects harbored more parasites (P<0.05). Trilabiatus lignicolus; a free-living soil nematode and A. lumbricoides; a soil transmitted helminthes found in the guts of Z. variegatus and G orientalis was attributed to the feeding habits of the insects.

Conclusion: The study indicated that Z. variegatus and G. orientalis as veritable vectors of soil transmitted nematodes while Z. variegatus and Mantis religiose are suitable host of the entomophilous nematode Mermis Spp.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Klebsiella Pnuemonia and their In-Vitro Susceptibility Studies among Cattle Traders in Maiduguri Cattle Market, Borno State, Nigeria

Kabiru Ibrahim Mohammed, lynn Maori, Maikudi Haruna Ishaya, Emmanuel Peter, Japhet J. kalang, Abdulsalam Yakubu, Samira David Awak, Rimamnyang C. Mamtara

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i430169

This study was undertaken to assess the occurrence of Klebsiella pneumoniae and there in-vitro susceptibility among cattle traders, herdsmen and butchers in Maiduguri cattle market, Borno state, Nigeria. Two hundred and twelve sample (212) sputum samples were collected using wide mouth sterile universal container and transported immediately to Medical Micro-Biology laboratory department, Centre of Excellence, university of Maiduguri teaching hospital (U.M.T.H.) for Laboratory diagnosed. The Sputum samples were culture on MacConkey and Blood agar media and isolated then, identified using Biochemical test which include indole, citrate utilization and urease tests, but only 15 sputum samples were found infected or positive to Klebsiella pneumoniae. And their Antimicrobial susceptibility of the Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate by disc diffusion method shows that Klebsiella pneumoniae are susceptible to these Antimicrobial Drugs: Pefloxacin (93.3%), Tarivid (100%), Sparfloxacin (80%), Ciprofloxacin (93.3%) and on the other hand  Klebsiella pneumoniae are resistance to these Antimicobial drugs; Streptomycin (73.3%), Septrin (80%), Augumentin (73.3%), Gentamycin (66.7%), and Amoxacillin (60%). In conclusion, recommendation have been made on how to curtail the spread of infection caused by Klebsiella in the environment, homes, and between patients. Healthcare providers are advice to follow the specific infection-control precautions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Prevalence and Its Demographic Determinants in Oyigbo Local Governement Area, Rivers State, South-South, Nigeria

Sylvia E. EGBOM, Margaret OGIDI, Florence O. NDUKA, Sidney O. NZEAKO

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i430171

Aim: To investigate the prevalence of malaria and how demographic factors influence malaria parasite transmission among persons attending primary health care facilities in Oyigbo LGA, Rivers State, South-South, Nigeria.

Methodology: Intra-venous blood samples were obtained from 190 participants who enrolled for the study. These blood samples were stored in ethylene diamine tetra acetate bottles (EDTA) and used to make thick and thin films for malaria parasite detection using standard parasitological techniques (Cheesbrough 1998). Questionnaires were administered to the participants to obtain their demographic data. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25 and presented using descriptive statistics. Chi-square was used to obtain level of significance (p<0.05).

Results: Of the 190 persons examined, 109 were positive, giving a prevalence of 57.4%. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite observed. Females 67 (59.82%) were more affected than males 42 (53.84%) but this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Age group 41-50 and those with Secondary education had higher prevalence. The difference observed in these groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). Artisans had the highest prevalence whereas the unemployed had the least prevalence. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Demographic factors have been shown to influence malaria transmission. Therefore, malaria control efforts should be intensified, taking into cognizance, the role of demographic factors in transmission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecology of Ticks (Ixodidae) on Cattle within Main Campus of the University of Abuja, Nigeria

Balarabe-Musa Binta, Ayobami Rachael, Onyeagba Kosisochukwu Dematus

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i430172

A survey was conducted using standard parasitological procedures to determine the ecology of ticks on the cattle within the main campus of the University of Abuja, Nigeria. The tick specie identified were Amblyomma variegatum, Amblyomma hebraeum, 0rnithodorus moubata complex, Hyalomma truncatum, Hyalomma rufipies, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Phipicephalus appendiculatus, and Boophilus microplus. Of the 100 cattle examined. 47(47%) of the tick examined was found on the male cow and 53(53%) were found on the female cow. In addition, 23(23%) of the observed tick are found on the leg, 20(20%) are found in the anus, 20(20%) are found on the udder, 14(14%) are found on the back while 23(23%) of the ticks are found in the ear. 31(31%) of the observed ticks were found on the bunaj specie, 24(24%) of the ticks on the Gudali, 24(24%) of the observed ticks on the Rahaji specie and 21(21%) on the wadara specie. Amblyomma hebraeum, Ornithodorus moubata Complex and Rhipicephalus dicoloratus were found more dominantly on Bunaj breed (42.9%, 55.6% and 42.9% respectively), Amblyomma variegatum and Phipicephalus appendiculatus was observed to be more dominant on Rahaji breed (infesting 33.3% and 66.7% respectively), Boophylus microplus and Hyalomma rufipe were found dominant on wadara (30% and 50% respectively). There is need to help establish baseline information on ticks ecology and occurrence in the study area which would consequently lead to increased public awareness especially to the herdsmen and in avoiding tick borne diseases, also to help in vector control formulation and to prevent the herdsmen of suffering from low productivity due to the presence of ticks, thereby leading to various weaknesses, diseases and sometimes death of the cattle. Owing to this, this study did not only identify the tick species infesting cattle but also examined the host-parasite ecology of ticks on cattle within the main campus of the University of Abuja, Nigeria.

Open Access Review Article

Rainy Season Food Availability for Anurans of Kimboza Forest Reserve, Tanzania

Nsajigwa Emmanuel Mbije, Asha Kamungu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i430170

Amphibians are mostly considered to be generalist predators. Some species have a narrow diet or even specialize on certain prey categories. An assessment of the feeding habits of anuran species of Kimboza forest reserve, Tanzania was conducted during rainy season between March 2017 and June 2017. Through a visual encounter survey, 93 species were captured and analyzed for gut contents. About 462 prey items were identified the most abundant component being Isoptera and Hymenoptera. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the anurans’ diet (composition or diversity or preferences) among different habitats of the forest (along boundaries and within the forest) but significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between the upper Stratum and the lower Stratum of the forest. The study provides a preliminary estimation of the actual diet of anurans and establishes a general feeding pattern for these species for the management of the Kimboza forest reserve. The study recommends the intensification of similar assessments in the nearby forest areas to come up with a complete description of the feeding habits for management purposes.