Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Coenzyme Q10 on Hormonal Profile in Male Sprague-Dawley Rat Exposed to Sub-Chronic Concentrations of Cypermethrin

Eme Efioanwan Orlu, Adetutu Olubunmi Obulor

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i330162

Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the impact of Coenzyme Q10 on hormonal profile in male Sprague-Dawley rat exposed to sub-chronic concentrations of Cypermethrin.

Experimental Design: A completely randomized experimental design using standard methods for analysis. Hormonal assay was carried out by Microplate Enzyme Immunoassay using their respective test kits. Including AccuBindTM Microplate EIA Test system from Monobind Inc. Lake Forest CA 92630 USA while statistical analysis was carried out using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); where significant differences were found, Pair-wise comparisons conducted with Tukey test using SPSS 20 software.

Location and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Biology, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. GPS 4o48ʹ14ʹʹ N 6o59ʹ12ʹʹ E. The study lasted for 28days.

Methodology: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups, A-E(n=6/group).Group A was given cool clean water and standard rat pellet ad libitum. Group B,C and D were administered Cypermethrin @ 10mg/kg/bw,20mg/kg/bw,30mg/kg/bw respectively along with 10mg/kg/bw of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Group E received 30mg/kg/bw of cypermethrin only without Coenzyme Q10. All animals were allowed access to cool clean water and standard rat pellet ad libitum. Bodyweight of the animals were taken twice a week and recorded in grams. Twenty-four hours before the animals were euthanized with ethyl ether inhalation, feed was withdrawn from the animals. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture between the hours of 7:00 and 9:00am into plain sample tubes according to the approved protocol of blood collection techniques. Analysis for the quantitative determination of all androgens was by Microplate Enzyme Immunoassay using the AccuBindTM Microplate EIA Test system from Monobind Inc. Lake Forest CA 92630 USA and expressed as their respective units. The animals were latter dissected and the vital organs harvested and weighed. The values were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software 20.

Results: Results showed that there was no significant difference between the bodyweight and organ weight of animals in the treatment group compared with the control. Also, treatment with Cypermethrin only in group E, reduced the level of all the androgens considered in exposed animals. However, with concurrent administration of coenzyme Q10, the production of all androgens especially the production of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone and Progesterone in groups B,C,D and Estrogen in group B were significantly (P=.05) increased to values higher than the control.

Conclusion: This elevation indicates the role of Coenzyme Q10 as an effective antioxidant to boost hormonal level production especially the level of androgens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aero-microbiology of Selected Poultry Farms in Imo State, South Eastern, Nigeria

J. E. Ekeleme, J. C. Ozougwu, V. O. Nwaugo, N. C. Nwachukwu, C. N. Okorie, I. Nwachukwu, D. M. Smith-Akor

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i330163

The aero-microbiology of selected poultry farms in Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria was investigated by microbial analysis. Result revealed that in Owerri poultry farm, Pm2.5 had a range of 8-36±1.4 ug/m3, PM10 had a range of 19-55±1.4ug/m3, a temperature range of 34.1-37.8±4.2oC and a relative humidity of 63.3-81.6±0.0%, while poultry farm at Okigwe had Pm2.5 range of 8±1.4-21±1.4ug/m3, PM10 had a range of 20±1.4- 88±2.8ug/m3, a temperature range of 28.6±1.2-38.1±0.0oc, and a relative humidity of 63.4±0.0-87.0±1.4%. Total heterotrophic bacterial count (THBC), total coliform count (TCC), Total Staphylococal count(TSC) and total fungi count (TFC) examined showed that THBC group had the highest counts with a range of 1.2-20.8cfu/plate/mins along the distances at 15minutes, 2.7-21.4cfu/plate/mins at 30minutes and 3.5-21.8cfu/plate/mins at 45minutes. While in Okigwe, THBC which was also the highest had a range of 09-22.5 along the distances at 15minutes, 1.2-24.8cfu/plate/mins at 30minutes and 1.0-4.0cfu/plate/mins at 45 minutes. Bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus and Streptococcus species while the fungi isolated were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium Mucor and Rhizopus Species. Temperature, particulate matter and microbial counts were highest during the dry season, while relative humidity was highest during the rainy season respectively. It was observed that as time increased along the distances examined, microbial load also increased. The aero-microbiology of the farms studied showed that the air contained presence of bacteria and fungi of medical importance in both seasons, hence, there is the need to always ensure proper management and evaluation of poultry farms to avoid micro-organisms from exceeding their permissive limits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiversity and Phylogenetic Relationship of Total Hydrocarbon Degrading Genes in Selected Bacteria Species

R. B. Agbor, S. P. Antai, S. E. Ubi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i330164

Hydrocarbons which forms the bulk of soil and water pollutants in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria differs in their susceptibility to microbial attack and degradation. Considering the importance of hydrocarbons in the economy of any nation, a complete knowledge of the hydrocarbons degrading capabilities of associated microbial species becomes increasingly important and indispensable. The research was aimed at assessing the biodiversity and phylogenetic relationship of hydrocarbon degrading genes in selected bacteria species. Sequences of nucleotides and amino acids of hydrocarbons degrading genes in 12 species of bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa I & II, P. stutgeni, Thalassosqir spp. I & II, Alcavorox spp., Arthrobacter spp., Martellela spp., P. taenensis, Aneuribacillus species, Rhodococcus spp. and Uncultured bacteria, were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and analysed for their variability in physicochemical properties, percentage identity and similarity, G-C content, secondary and tertiary structures, their biodiversity and their phylogenetic relationship using MEGA 6 soft-wares, GOR IV, Phyre, Genscan and SIB Protparam. The analysis showed great genetic diversity and polymorphism in the hydrocarbon degrading genes present in the bacteria species. The phylogenetic tree showed that the genes in most species had undergone mutation. Martella spp had the highest probability or chance of mutating with E-value of 7e-129. Only two of the bacteria species had low instability index indicating that majority of the bacteria species contains or possessed the unstable nature of the hydrocarbon degrading genes. The biodiversity of bacterial species and their genetic distance was ascertained.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Interactive Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Selected Herbicides on Lysinibacillusfusiformis

Franca Ngozi Okafor, Michael Uchenna Orji, Samuel Chinedu Onuorah, Bright Obidinma Uba, Chinweike Unoma Dokubo, Joypat Ogechukwu Ofunnwa

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i330165

Aims: To assess the toxicities of some herbicides as individuals and in binary mixtures to Lysinibacillus fusiformis isolated from Oryzasativa plant using dehydrogenase activity as an endpoint.

Study Design: The binary mixture consists of combination of any two herbicides selected from the three herbicides (drysate, weedcut and aminoforce) for the study The binary mixture ratios (%) were designed as: 50%:50%; 80%:20% and 20%:80% for the respective mixtures in the concentration range of 0 -10, 000 mg/L.

Place and Duration of Study: Silver Press Laboratory, Owerri Nigeria between July, 2016 and August, 2019.

Methodology: A laboratory scale study was carried on three toxicants using dehydrogenase inhibition test. The inhibition of dehydrogenase activity of the isolate by toxicant was calculated relative to the control. All the dose-response relationships of the individual toxicants and that of themixtures were described by logistic dose model and Weibullcum model parameter.

Results: The results revealed that the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) observed were 1,067.33 ± 36.68 mg/L for drysate; 2,180.00 ± 147.31 mg/L for weedcut and 4,550.00 ± 62.45 mg/L for aminoforce. Duncan tests indicated that the IC50 of the toxicants were significantly different from each other. Among the individual toxicants, the ascending toxicities ranking were aminoforce > weedcut > drysate. The responses of the test organism to the stresses of the toxicants were dose-dependent and the toxicants also progressively repressed the dehydrogenase activity as the concentration increased. All binary mixtures were strongly synergistic against the organism.

Conclusion: Thus, the toxicity of individual compound and synergistic effects of the mixtures of the toxicants indicates potential deleterious effects of both the individual chemicals and their mixtures to the rhizobacteria of Oryza sativa plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breeding of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) using Different Approaches

J. O. Ed-Idoko, S. G. Solomon, P. A. Annune, B. T. Iber, D. Torsabo, O. N. Christiana

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 42-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i330166

Thirty-three broodstock of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) obtained from Panyam Fish Farm, plateau state Nigeria was used to evaluate the percentage hatchability of carp through induced natural spawning in outdoor Hapa net system, and induced breeding by stripping in indoor concrete Ponds. Spawning and fertilization was natural for experimental group 1. Ovaprim hormone was used to induce broodstock in experimental group 2 and 3, but unlike experimental group 3, experimental group 2 was not stripped manually, as the induced female broodstock shed her eggs naturally. At the end of the experiment, the mean number of eggs in one gram was found to be (733.33±3.53a) in treatment 3, as compared to that of experimental group 2 (702.00±3.21b) and experimental group 1 (709.33±4.91b), with a significant difference at (P<0.05). There was no significant difference (P<0.05) in fecundity (x103) from the three experimental groups. Percentage fertilization was highest in experimental group 2 (94.44±0.40a). Percentage Hatchability was highest in experimental group 3 (94.10±0.85a). Number of post fry in one liter of water at day seven after hatching was found to be highest in  experimental group 3 (1896.30±53.40a). In conclusion, the best method of carp propagation for aquaculture is the synchronized propagation through stripping in indoor concrete ponds, which had 94% hatching rate.