Open Access Original Research Article

Growth-enhanced Performance by Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Salon Effluent and Spent Calcium-carbide Amended Substrates

Juliet Oluwatominiyi Oni, Mary-Ibenreh Ogaboh Agba, Glory Akpan Bassey, Aniedi-Abasi Akpan Markson

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i230157

Aims: To investigate the growth response of Pleurotus ostreatus, a wood-rotting fungus, to different growth substrates [Sawdust (SD), dry banana leaves (BL) and a combination of both BL and SD (BLSD)] amended with waste [salon effluent (SE) and spent calcium-carbide (SC)].

Place and duration of study: Department of Plant and Ecological Studies, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, between May 2015 and August 2015.

Methodology: Amendments were applied to growth substrates at different levels of concentration as follows: 0 ml and 0 g, 5 ml and 5 g, 10 ml and 10 g, 15 ml and 15 g per kg substrate. Mature mushrooms were harvested and assessed on the following parameters; number of fruit bodies, fresh weight, dry weight, length of stipe, girth of stipe, pileus area using conventional method.

Results: Number of fruitbodies, fresh weight, dry weight and stipe length increased with increase in concentration of additives. Best performances of these growth parameters were obtained at 15 g/kg and 15 ml/kg concentration. The highest number of fruitbodies (with a peak mean value of 28.42 fruitbodies at 15 g/kg concentration), highest value of fresh weight and dry weight were observed in SD. The longest stipe length, largest stipe girth and pileus area were observed in BLSD, though it exhibited least performances in other growth parameters. BLSD amended with salon effluent produced mushrooms with the largest pileus area (with a peak mean value of 53.8 cm2 at 15ml concentration) compared to the other substrates.

Conclusion: This study reveals that all growth parameters of P. ostreatus assessed were positively influenced by all the levels of amendments on the substrates used in this study. Therefore, these wastes could be used to increase the yield of P. ostreatus and possibly remediate sites polluted by these wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Factors Affecting the Conservation of Tigers in the Samsher Nagar Area of Sunderbans

Partha Pratim Dube

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i230158

Increased human populations and the resulting encroachment of related lands with poaching of tigers and their key prey threaten the survival of tigers across their range. Mere collection of huge data on ecology does not promote the protection of carnivores but it mainly depends on public co-operation and awareness. The public attitude towards carnivores (Panthera tigris tigris) is vital because fear pervades among the local inhabitants. Our target population consisted of all adults inhabitants. We sampled arbitrarily founded on geographic area. We guessed that the best data collection method would involve sampling at home of the residents by personal interview with the questionnaires due to huge illiteracy of the inhabitants. Proceeding this way was time-consuming but proved to increase the quality of responses. We studied villagers’ mind-set and collected information on public awareness, feelings and frequency of sightings related to the tigers. They were conscious of its existence and aware of its ecological values to conserve Sunderbans also. To better understand the social factors affecting large carnivore conservation, we surveyed the tiger-affected people, the relatives of the people killed by tigers and the common villagers in the village of Samser nagar of Sunderbans, West Bengal, in India. People living in this area are heavily dependent on forest for their livelihood. They collect honey and catch crabs and fish seedlings from the jungle. Nowadays, many tourists came to see flora and fauna and the eternal beauty of Sunderbans. Many people depend their livelihood on tourism. These social factors make them to think to save Sunderbans. If Sunderbans is destroyed in near future, then they will suffer economically. A financial constraint of the inhabitants to protect the human lives and cattle from the attack of tigers was revealed by choosing the category willing to conserve but not afforded to pay. This study was the first assessment of public responsiveness and exposed the basic data for understanding Bengal tigers in the area of Samsher nagar of Sunderbans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amino Acids Composition of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms from Southern Cross River State, Nigeria

Juliet Oluwatominiyi On, Glory Akpan Bassey, Mary-Ibenreh Ogaboh Agba, Aniedi-Abasi Akpan Markson

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i230159

Aims: To document the amino acid content of six wild edible mushrooms - Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Auricularia auricular-judae (Bull.) Wettst., Mycetinis copelandii (Desjardin) A.W. Wilson & Desjardin, Baeospora myosura (Fr.) Singer, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex. fr) Kummer and Volvariella volvacea (Bull. ex. Fr.) Singer - found in southern Cross River State, Nigeria.

Place and duration of study: Department of Plant and Ecological Studies, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, between May 2018 and August 2018.

Methodology: The amino acids content of these mushrooms were quantitatively estimated. The samples were obtained and analyzed for amino acids on dry weight basis using standard methods.

Results: The amino acid analysis quantitatively estimated the alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, norleucine, phenylalanine, proline, serine; threonine; tryptophan; tyrosine and valine component of the mushroom samples. All the mushrooms studied contained nine essential, five conditionally essential and four non-essential amino acids with glutamic acid as the most predominant (values ranging from 6.66 to 17.26g/100g protein). Cysteine (0.30-0.48g/100g protein) and methionine (0.64-1-1.7g/100g protein) were the lowest in concentration. The concentrations of five of these essential amino acids phenylalanine (3.55 mg/100g protein), valine (3.62 mg/100g protein), threonine (3.39 mg/100g protein), tryptophan (1.58 mg/100g protein), and lysine (3.23 mg/100g protein) in P. ostreatus were significantly (P≤0.05) higher than found in the other mushrooms. For the nonessential and conditionally essential amino acids, the concentrations of arginine (6.02 mg/100g protein), aspartic acid (6.88 mg/100g protein), cysteine (0.48 mg/100g protein), glutamine (17.26 mg/100g protein) and glycine (2.61 mg/100g protein) in P. ostreatus were significantly higher (P≤0.05) than found in the other mushrooms.

Conclusion: This information reveals that mushrooms are potential sources of quality protein with substantial proportion of essential amino acids indicating they can play a significant role in the fight against malnutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blowflies Reared in Laboratory Conditions from Maggots Collected on Rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769, Var Wistar) Carrions in Yaoundé (Cameroon, Central Africa)

F. D. Feugang Youmessi, P. B. Nwane, C. Djiéto-lordon, Y. Braet, M. H. Villet, C. F. Bilong Bilong

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 33-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i230160

Forensic entomology offers insects as physical evidence during legal procedures. Forensic entomologists have determined succession of arthropods on dead animals, but few published studies are available on necrophagous larvae collected on carcasses around the world. This study evaluated the diversity of arthropods associated with rat carcasses to identify species of forensic relevance. Larvae hatched from arthropod eggs were reared until the emergence of adult flies under ambient laboratory conditions. Adult flies were identified to species level. Overall, 6319 individuals belonging to 6 families, 13 genera and 21 species of Diptera emerged.

Open Access Review Article

Microfactories-Bioproduction of Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals by using Microbes

Attiya Rasool

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i230161

A variety of organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and plants, produce secondary metabolites, also known as natural products. Natural products have been a prolific source and an inspiration for numerous medical agents with widely divergent chemical structures and biological activities, including antimicrobial, immunosuppressive, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities, many of which have been developed as treatments and have potential therapeutic applications for human diseases. Aside from natural products, the recent development of recombinant DNA technology has sparked the development of a wide array of biopharmaceutical products, such as recombinant proteins, offering significant advances in treating a broad spectrum of medical illnesses and conditions. Fine chemicals that are physiologically active, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, flavoring agents as well as additives for foods, feed, and fertilizer are produced by enzymatically or through microbial fermentation. The identification of enzymes that catalyze the target reaction makes possible to synthesis of the desired fine chemical. The genes encoding these enzymes are then introduced into suitable microbial hosts that are cultured with inexpensive, naturally abundant carbon sources, and other nutrients. Metabolic engineering create efficient microbial cell factories for producing chemicals at higher yields. In the present review, we summarize recent studies on bio-based fine chemical production and assess the potential of synthetic bioengineering for further improvement their productivity.