Open Access Short communication

Effect of Different Spacing on the Growth and Yield of California Wonder Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum) on Sandy Loam Soil in the Gambia

Landing Jadama, Pa Tamba Jammeh, Alhagie K. Cham, Idrissa Diedhiou

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i130152

Optimum plant spacing ensures proper growth and development of crops resulting in maximum crop yield and economic use of land. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different planting spacing on the growth and yield of California Wonder Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum) on sandy loam soil of The Gambia, from January to May 2018. The design used for this experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments (T1: 50 x 50 cm, T2: 50 x 40 cm, T3: 50 x 30 cm and T4: 50 x 20 cm) and three repetitions and the parameter of plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, fruit length, fruit circumference, individual fruit weight, yield per plant, and yield per hectare. The plant spacing had a significant effect on plant height, stem girth and the number of leaves of the growth parameters, whereas for the yield parameters, individual fruit weight, yield per plant and total biomass yield were found significantly in treatments with the highest plant spacing (50 x 50 cm). In conclusion, wider plant spacing (50 x 50 cm) boosts the plants to develop the maximum number of branches and fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Eco-cinegetic Management in Romania’s Maramureș Forest District

Andrei Nicolae Helindian, Bogdan-Vasile Cioruța

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i130153

Hunting has been one of the first major concerns of humans since their appearance on this earth for many thousands of years. For the civilized world, however, the hunting activity made huge leaps of content, manifestation, and attitude, eventually reaching to be defined as a cultural, educational, recreational, sports, and even art activity. The present paper has as a subject the national hunting fund, having as a case study, the hunting fund of Maramureș county, specifically, the Vișeu district. We presented the national situation regarding the hunting fund, and only later, after reviewing the definition and characteristics of hunting, we started to present the data for Vișeu district hunting fund, noting that it has a significant hunting potential supported by sustainable management that may still involve adjustment, improvements, and assignment of methodologies, strategies and good environmental practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Helminthofauna of Three Wild Achatina Species from a Rural Community of South Eastern Nigeria: A Potential Public Health Problem

Michael O. Elom, Ifeoma A. Okpara-Elom

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i130154

A total of 405 land snails were collected by hand picking from the study area between November 2018 and August 2019. The snails were morphologically identified using standard procedures. Shannon Weiner index was used to determine the distribution of the snail species during sampling. Light and teasing methods were used to isolate some of the parasites from the snails. The snails were dissected and different parts of the viscera were examined for parasites, using standard parasitological techniques. The isolated parasites were identified using parasitological guides. Achatina achatina was the most abundant snail species while A. marginata was the least abundant. Greater numbers of snails were collected in the wet season than in the dry season, with no observed complete dominance of any of the species. In the dry season, A. fulica was infected by almost all the parasites, with an overall highest prevalence of 32.69%. More snails were infected in wet season in comparison with the dry season, with higher prevalence of (46.91%vs 32.69%). There was co-infection of the snails with at least two of the parasite species. In both wet and dry seasons, A. marginata had an overall least infection prevalence of 11.77% and 4.55% respectively while A. Fulica was infected most with prevalence of (46.91%vs 32.69%). Proper cooking of snails, proper washing of vegetables, public health education and provision of good toilet facilities are recommended for control of snail-borne parasites especially the zoonotic ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Otoliths and Fish Length of Selected Catfish in Niger Delta, Nigeria

Oteri, Vivian O, Ugbomeh, Adaobi P, Moslen, Miebaka, Ugbomeh, Leonard I

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i130155

Catfish are important fishery resources in the Niger Delta therefore they require studies on its growth patterns and morphometrics. This study examined the relationship between the length and width of catfish otoliths and their fish length. Catfish samples were harvested from New Calabar and Ase Rivers, Niger Delta, Nigeria, by fishers using cast net and purse seines. The fishes were identified, measured, otoliths removed and measured using standard methods. Simple linear regressions expressed the relationship between otolith dimensions and fish length. A total of 80 individuals made up of 7 species from 5 families (Ariidae, Claroteidae, Claridae, Schilbeidae and Mochokidae) were selected for this study. Correlation analysis between the morphometric parameters of the otoliths from the catfish species in the study area revealed a strong positive correlation between the total length of the fish and the length of the otoliths, with R2 values ranging from 0.86 to 0.98. There was also a strong positive correlation between total fish length and otolith width. The relationship between otolith length and width with the fish length in this study showed curvilinearity, indicating the usefulness of the otolith proportions in back calculation of the length of the fish in biological and paleontological studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Diversity Analysis in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces using SSR Markers

Farhana Afrin Vabna, Mohammad Zahidul Islam, Md. Ferdous Rezwan Khan Prince, Md. Ekramul Hoque

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 36-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v12i130156

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the genetic diversity of twenty four Boro rice landraces using rice genome specific twelve well known SSR markers.

Study Design: Genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and data analysis-these steps were followed to perform the research work. Data was analysed with the help of following software; POWERMAKER version 3.25, AlphaEaseFC (Alpha Innotech Corporation) version 4.0. UPGMA dendrogram was constructed using MEGA 5.1 software.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Genetic Resources and Seed Division (GRSD), Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh during the period of November 2017 to March 2018.

Methodology: Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were used to assay 24 landraces of Boro rice collected from the Gene Bank of Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI).

Results: A total fifty four (54) alleles were detected, out of which forty five (45) polymorphic alleles were identified. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) of SSR markers ranged from 0.08 (RM447) to 0.84 (RM206) with an average value of PIC = 0.49. Gene diversity ranges from 0.08 (RM447) to 0.86 (RM206) with an average value of 0.52. The RM206 marker can be considered as the best marker among the studied markers for 24 rice landraces. Dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) indicated the segregation of 24 genotypes into three main clusters.

Conclusion: The result revealed that SSR markers are very effective tools in the study of genetic diversity and genetic relationships and this result can be conveniently used for further molecular diversity analysis of rice genotypes to identify diverse parent for the development of high yielding variety in rice.