Open Access Letter to the Editor

Open Access Original Research Article

Taxonomic Characteristics and Phytochemical Constituents of Asystasiagangetica (L.) T. Anderson, a Member of Acanthaceae

C. Wahua, B. A. Odogwu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i430149

This study examined the taxonomic characteristics of Asystasiagangetica; a perennial herb characterized by its trailing to erect habit and as a result, roots from the nodes. It is glabrous and grows up to 80±20 cm. There are simple leaves with petioles which are ovate in shape with opposite phyllotaxy and margins are even to slightly serrated, measuring up to 7±2 cm in length and 3±1 cm in width. The inflorescence is one-sided raceme with purplish-blue tubular flowers which is pentamerous. The fruits are dry dehiscent capsule up to 2±0.5 cm in length. The epidermal studies revealed presence of simple elongated to conical shaped multicellular trichomes and cyclocytic stomata which are amphistomatic in nature, though very scanty in adaxial foliar region. Anatomical study showcased a single layer in the epidermis. The hypodermis consists of 2 to 3 layers of collenchyma, the general cortex and pith is made of parenchyma and cuts across mid-ribs, petioles, stems, nodes and roots, occurring in similar locations except that the number of layers of cells are not the same and vascular bundle is open type. The phytochemical study revealed that the following secondary metabolites are present: alkaloids, saponins and cardiac glycosides while steroidal aglycones, not observed. This information here would assist for further delimitation of the species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety Assessment of Artemether/Lumefantrine/ Tinidazole on the Kidneys of Healthy and Diseased Mice

Elias Adikwu, Udeme Owunari Georgewill

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i430150

Artemether/lumefantrine/tinidazole- (A/L/T) can be use for the treatment of malaria; therefore its safety assessment is imperative. This study assessed its safety on the kidneys of healthy and diseased mice. Fifty four Swiss albino mice were used for this study. Mice were diseased with Plasmodium berghei () and treated with T (28.6 mg/kg), A/L (2.3/13.7mg/kg) and A/L/T for 4 days. Healthy mice were treated with T (28.6 mg/kg), A/L (2.3/13.7mg/kg) and A/L/T for 28 days. At the termination of treatment, the mice were weighed, sacrificed and blood samples were collected and examined for kidney biochemical markers. Kidneys were weighed and evaluated for oxidative stress markers and histology. T, A/L and A/L/T had no significant (p>0.05) effects on all evaluated parameters in diseased mice when compared to control. Body weight was decreased whereas kidney weight was increased in healthy mice treated with T, (p<0.05), A/L (p<0.05) and A/L/T (p<0.01) when compared to control. Significantly elevated serum creatinine, urea, uric acid levels with significantly decreased albumin, and total protein levels occurred in healthy mice treated with T (p<0.05), A/L (p<0.01) and A/L/T (p<0.001) when compared to control. Altered kidney oxidative stress markers characterized by significantly decreased glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase levels with significantly increased malondialdehyde levels occurred in healthy mice treated with T (p<0.05), A/L (p<0.01) and A/L/T (p<0.001) when compared to control. A/L/T produced tubular necrosis and enlarged Bowman’s space in healthy mice. The use of A/L/T as an antimalarial drug may be safe on the kidney, but long term use may cause kidney damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, GC-MS Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of CurcurbitapepoL. usingIts Leaf Sample

Ezekwe Ahamefula Sunday, Nwadike Constance Nnedimma, Wokocha Gift Peter, George Boma Orlando

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 33-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i430151

This study evaluated the phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and antioxidant activity of Curcurbitapepo L. using its leaf sample with standard methods. The sample used for the study was procured from Imo State University school farm and was properly identified. Result of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of  saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, phlobactannins, proteins, and anthraquinnones, while the GC-MS analysis revealed a total of 78 compounds, out which Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (C24H38O4) had the highest molecular weight, 2,4,6-Octatriene, 2,6-dimethyl- (C10H16) had the highest peak area of 10.21% while Morphinan-6-ol, 4,5-epoxy-N-methyl-, (5α 6α- (C17H21NO2) had the highest retention time. The antioxidant activity of the studied sample was enhanced against the control. Some of the compounds as revealed by GC-MS analysis could be of healthcare or industrial importance.  There is need for further studies on the leaf sample to ascertain further the observations of the present study. This study has evaluated the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and antioxidant activity of C.pepo L. using its leaf sample.

Open Access Review Article

Ecosystem and Ecological Services; Need for Biodiversity Conservation-A Critical Review

C. E. Oguh, E. N. O. Obiwulu, O. J. Umezinwa, S. E. Ameh, C. V. Ugwu, I. M. Sheshi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i430146

Biodiversity and ecosystems are closely related concepts. Biodiversity provides numerous ecosystem services that are crucial and important to human well-being at present and in the future. The review aim to explain the Ecosystem services, and need for conservation of biodiversity. Ecosystem services (also called environmental services or nature’s services) are benefits provided by ecosystems to humans, which contribute to making human life both possible and worth living. Human kind fully depends on the earth’s ecosystems and the services they provide, such as food, water, disease management, climate regulation, spiritual fulfillment and aesthetic enjoyment. Over the past 50 years, humans have changed these ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than ever before, so that growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber and fuel can be met. Pollution through the discharge of municipal and industrial wastewater and solid waste (e.g. plastics) exacerbates the related problems. Environmental pollution results from mishandling, deliberate disposal, spilling and leakage of waste products, such as gasoline, lubricating oils, diesel fuel, heating oil’s, used or spent engine oils, animal wastes, human excreta, certain dissolved organic compound (e.g. urea, carbohydrate etc.), and organic salts such as nitrates, soap, phosphates of detergent, sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. Under natural process most of the biodegradable pollutants of sewage are rapidly decomposed, but when they accumulate in large quantities, they create problems, i.e., when their input into environment exceeds the decomposition or disposal capacity. Ecosystem health is inherently linked to water management, sanitation and agriculture as these aspects influence water availability and quality. The loss of biodiversity can reduce the provision of ecosystem services essential for human well-being. Therefore, sustainable sanitation and water management is crucial for a more sustainable ecosystem management in the future.