Open Access Short Research Article

Induction of Resistance in Poplar to Melampsora larici-populina Using L-form Bacteria

P. W. H. K. P. Daulagala

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/41044

Poplars (Populus spp.) of the Family Salicaceae are extensively cultivated worldwide and are susceptible to a variety of bacterial and fungal diseases. In Populus species, leaf rust disease caused by several species of Melampsora leads to considerable damages in plantations.  Melampsora larici-populina is the most devastating and widespread fungal pathogen causing leaf rust disease in poplars. In this study, leaves and young stems of rooted cuttings of two poplar clones were treated with L-form bacteria of Bacillus subtilis NCIMB 8054, ATCC 6633 and then challenged with the spores of rust pathogen M. larici-populina. The development of uredinia was evaluated in the laboratory using the leaf disc assay. The L-forms greatly reduced rust severity in inoculated poplar leaves (local effect), while to a lesser extent in non-inoculated leaves obtained from inoculated plants showing a low systemic effect on pustule development. This plant- L-form symbiosis may have contributed significantly to a quantitative resistance to M. larici-populina indicating a promising implication for the use of L-form bacteria of B. subtilis as a biocontrol agent for poplars against the rust pathogen.

Open Access Minireview Article

Conventional and Nano-Based Therapy against Chronic Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases

Rout George Kerry, Smruti Malinee Sahoo, Gitishree Das, Jayanta Kumar Patra

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/42104

Structural or functional damage to cells, tissues, organs, or organ systems emerging from immunologically competent cells or antibodies against a normal component of the host body may lead to autoimmune disorder or diseases. There are about 152 autoimmune diseases classified till now by American Autoimmune Related Disease Association. Current research investigators are more focused on certain autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, celiac disease, Sjögren's syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica, multiple sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, type-1 diabetes, alopecia areata, vasculitis and temporal arteritis. Chronic inflammation is a common link among most of the autoimmune disorder, but the exact link is not clear. Therefore an effective cure for the disease could not be developed. The conventional therapeutics available is steadily getting constrained because of the development resistance. Present therapeutic shows some limitations such as unidirectional, unspecific and resistance with specific side-effect. With the present advancement in science and technology, it is now possible to alienate the present constraints offered by the present conventional therapeutics by the application of biocompatible, biodegradable nano-formulated drug delivery system. Therefore the intention of this mini-review is to provide a base knowledge about the relationship of autoimmune diseases with inflammation as well as the efficiency of the conventional and nanotechnology-based therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Locally Refined Diesel and Kerosene on Rhizopus stolonifer in Rivers State, Nigeria

Nedie Patience Akani, Renner Renner Nrior, Alfred Wilcox

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/42705

Aim: To compare the effect of locally refined diesel and kerosene on Rhizopus stolonifer in tri aquatic bodies.

Study Design: The study employs experimental assay and statistical analysis of the data and interpretation.

Place of Study: Freshwater, brackish water, and marine water samples were collected in sterile bottles from Ugama Ekede Stream, Ugama Ekede River and at the foot of the Atlantic ocean in Udun Ama all in Andoni Local Government Area Rivers State, using sterile sampling bottles. These samples were transported to the microbiological laboratory with ice pack within 24 hours for both isolations of test organisms and toxicity.

Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used; toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing locally refined diesel and kerosene at concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%, tested for durations of 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h. The cultures were incubated at 35ºC for 48 hours. LC50 was determined.

Results: The results indicate that logarithm of mortality of Rhizopus stolonifer increases with increased toxicants concentration and exposure time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the locally refined diesel and kerosene increases in the following order: (Note: the higher the LC50, the lower the toxic effect. Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in fresh water (41.88%) <Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in fresh water (41.64.5%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in brackish water (43.28%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in brackish water (33.41%) < Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined diesel in marine water (40.17%)           <Rhizopus stolonifer in locally refined kerosene in marine water (36.10%).

Conclusion: Locally refined kerosene in brackish water (LC50 = 33.41%) is the most toxic, having the lowest LC50 while locally refined diesel in brackish water (LC50 = 43.28%) have the lowest toxicity effect. These results show that locally refined diesel and kerosene can inhibit the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer in an aquatic ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Human Intestinal Nematode Parasites in Three Rural Communities of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

A. P. Ugbomeh, D. A. Goodhead, A. Green, J. Onwuteaka

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/42616

Infection with intestinal nematode parasite is one of the most important neglected parasitic infection in our local area. The aim of this study was to determine the current status and prevalence of human intestinal nematode parasite in three rural communities of the Niger Delta in Nigeria namely Rumuewhor, Ubimini and Elibrada. The study design was school-based with another collection point at the Primary Healthcare centres of each community. Samples were collected monthly from children and adults from Rumuewhor, Ubimini and Elibrada: three rural communities of the Niger Delta from October 2016 to April 2017.  One thousand bottles were issued to subjects of which four hundred (400) faecal samples were obtained. These were examined for nematode parasites using saline wet mount technique. Of the 400 samples examined 220 (55%) were positive for Ascaris, Trichiuris and Hookworm species. The age group 1-10 years old with 72.1% was the highest prevalence among the groups followed by age group 11-20 years (63.2%). The age 40+ years had zero prevalence. There was no gender and community difference (p < 0.05) in percentage infection. Poly-parasitism (co-infection) was recorded as Ascaris / Hookworm (AS/HK), Ascaris / Trichiuris (AS/TT) and Hookworm / Trichiuris (HK/TT) combinations in the study area. This was in decreasing order  of AS/TT > HK / TT  > AS / HK. This study has revealed that intestinal nematode parasites Ascaris, Trichiuris and hookworms were found with higher prevalence in the children of age 1 - 10.  The nullity of polyparasitism in one of the communities (Ubimini) suggests unequal exposure to the infective stages which requires further investigation. The significantly higher prevalence of hookworm indicates environmental faecal contamination, coupled with the damp humid tropical soil that provides a good growth factor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) and Soil in Aluu, Rivers State, Nigeria

Janet Olufunmilayo Williams

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/41855

Aim: To assess the Physicochemical and microbiological quality of POME and soil in Aluu, Rivers State.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Omuahunwo, Aluu near Choba, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State and Department of Applied and Environmental Biology Farmland, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt in Rivers State.

Materials and Methods: Palm oil mll effluent (POME) samples used in the study were obtained from two local palm oil factories located at Omuahunwo in Aluu near Choba, University of Port Harcourt in Rivers State. Replicate samples were collected bimonthly from the same source. Soil samples were obtained from an uncultivated farmland about 2 km away from the factory and a control soil sample devoid of POME contamination was taken from Department of Applied and Environmental Biology Farmland, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt. Samples were obtained from soil in proximity to the two factories polluted with POME. Samples were analyzed for their physicochemical and microbiological qualities.

Results: Palm oil Mills A and B had the following physicochemical parameters mean values: pH 5.48, 5.36; Conductivity 658μmhos/cm, 756μmhos/cm; total suspended solids 120,200 mg/l,122,000 mg/l;dissolved Oxygen 0mg/l (Palm oil mills A and B) ; BOD 5160 mg/l, 5200 mg/l;COD 432 mg/l, 4370 mg/l; Oil and Grease 165853 mg/l, 165900mg/l ;Phosphate 2.53 mg/l, 2.58 mg/l; Nitrate 68.83 mg/l, 68.90 mg/l; Ammonia 0 mg/l (for Palm Oil Mills A and B). Mean population of 8.25 x 103 cfu/ml, 3.6 x 103 cfu/ml, 3.2 x 102 cfu/ml and 12 MPN Index/100ml were recorded for total heterotrophic bacteria, filamentous Fungi, yeast and total coliforms respectively for the effluent samples from Palm Oil Mill A. Palm Oil Mill B had the following counts for total culturable heterotrophic bacteria, filamentous Fungi, yeast and total coliforms: 6.1 x 103 cfu/ml 2.5 x 103 cfu/ml, 2.2 x 102 cfu/ml and 8 MPN Index/100 ml. The most prevalent bacteria observed in this study were Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Arthrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.The genera isolated are common and many of the individual species are able to grow on petroleum hydrocarbon. The fungal genera identified were Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Penicllium spp., Candida spp. and Saccharomyces spp.

Conclusion: From this study, it was observed that POME could have a positive effect if discharged properly since little application of the effluent can enhance microbial proliferation which increases soil fertility. Most of the physicochemical parameters like BOD, TDS, Oil and grease, etc were above the limits of surface water disposal and land application by FEPA,1991 except sulphate. The organisms isolated in this study that utilized the components of the effluent might not be denitrifiers but are obviously nitrate utilizers.