Open Access Case study

Case Study: Effect of Soybean Infusion on Blood Glucose Levels on Wistar-strain Rats Loaded with Glucose

F. Pijar Beyna, Isworo Slamet

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i330141

Background and Objective: The increase in diabetes in Indonesia is largely due to poor food patterns and ingredients. Soybeans as a traditional Indonesian food contain                                                 good food ingredients and are believed by the public to prevent damage to pancreatic cells and to maintain the balance of the insulin hormone so as to reduce glucose                                                                              levels in the blood. This study aims to determine the effect of soy infusion on blood glucose levels (Study on Wistar-strain rats loaded with glucose).

Methods: This study is a True Experiment with using a pretest and posttest design with control group design. The research subjects used in this study were 3 months old male Wistar rats with glucose load intervention 1.35 mg with a concentration of 25%, 50%, 100% for 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 120 minutes.

Results: showed that there were significant differences between groups, p value <0.05.                          The effectiveness of reducing glucose levels in test animals based on the regression                            test showed that the best treatment with intervention dose glucose load was 50%, with trend / time of observation y = -1.3251 + 150.3.

Conclusion: This study concluded that the effect of soybean infusion had an effect on decreasing blood glucose levels of the tested animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amino Acids and Minerals in Fresh and Processed Catfish, Mackerel and Pork

Theresah Nkrumah, Worlah Yawo Akwetey

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i330142

The main tissue of meat is the muscle and it is a very rich source of amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, arginine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, and leucine) and some minerals like magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. In this study, essential amino acid profile in fresh catfish, mackerel, pork and their processed products were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Minerals were determined in the form of cation (magnesium, calcium, potassium, ammonium and sodium) and anion (fluorine, chlorine, Nitrate, Sulphate and phosphate) by Cadmium.mtw and ASUP5 – 100 marvin.mtw respectively. The most abundant amino acids determined were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, methionine and threonine which were found in catfish, mackerel and pork. Values observed were higher (p<0.05) in catfish and mackerel than pork. Fresh catfish and mackerel recorded higher values in most of the amino acids in both raw product and their frankfurters (CF and MF) than fresh pork. Sulphate values were also higher (p<0.05) in raw meat than their frankfurters. Higher level of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium were observed in processed pork frankfurter than fresh pork. Minerals such as calcium and sodium were present but are at a smaller quantity in meat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Osteomorphological Features of the Carcass of Inia geoffrensis (Cetacea: Iniidae)

P. F. Santos, Y. K. Soeiro-Avelar, A. S. Araújo, C. E. Costa-campos

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i330145

Osteological studies can have implications that allow direct biological inferences to be made, such as locomotion, as well as indirect ones, such as species distribution, evolution and ecology. This study was aimed at describing some osteological traits of Inia geoffrensis (Blainvillei, 1817), Macapá/AP. A nearly complete carcass was found in a local forest. Information about the killing was collected through community reports. After collecting bones and information, the carcass was taken to the Laboratory of Zoology at the Federal University of Amapá for cleaning and examination. The cleaning process was carried out following the step-by-step maceration protocol and measurements of bones were taken with a measuring tape (2 m) and ruler (50 cm), except for cervical vertebrae, which were measured with a caliper (15 cm). To find the limbs in the carcass, an identification guide and a bone chart of aquatic mammals were used. Based on the observed data, the animal was a female, determined by the genital cleft. Examination of the occipital bone revealed an adult with complete bone fusion, obliterated sutures on the external surface of the skull. The carcass was nearly complete, with the entire face measuring 55 cm. Further studies are needed on environmental education about cetaceans, local awareness with the assistance of inspectors and competent authorities for the conservation of freshwater dolphins in the region and studies on carcasses for the maintenance of the species.

Open Access Review Article

Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles and Its Applications

Anum Afreen

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i330143

The synthesis of nanoparticles is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by using different methods is currently under exploitation. Nanoparticles can be synthesized by Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Algae and Plants. Biosynthesis of Nanoparticles is a simple process in which intracellular and extracellular extract of an organism is mix with a metal salt.        Their optical properties are reported to be dependent on the size, which imparts different colors due to absorption in the visible region. Their reactivity, toughness and other properties are also dependent on their unique size, shape and structure. Due to these characteristics, they are suitable candidates for various commercial and domestic applications, which include catalysis, imaging, medical applications, energy-based research, and environmental applications. This review explains the various microorganisms like bacteria, algae, fungi; virus, plants and yeast involved in the synthesis of these Nanoparticles also elucidate the characterization of Nanoparticles and its applications.

Open Access Review Article

Influences of Light Regimes on Reproduction, Germination, Pigmentation, Pathogenesis and Overall development of a Variety of Filamentous Fungi – A Review

Felicia W. Nmom, Lawrence O. Amadi, Nathaniel N. Ngerebara

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i330144

Light influences important physiological and morphological responses in fungi, hence they can sense near UV, blue, green, red and far-red lights using up to eleven (11) photoreceptors and signaling cascades to control a larger proportion of the genomes and adapt to environmental factors. Though light is an environmental signal regulating myriad of biological processes, fungi do not utilize it as a source of energy for synthesis of food but for information and other developmental processes. Two genes WC-1 and WC-2 have been identified to function as photoreceptor for blue light proteins or orthologs and transcription factor for other light induced phenomenon. Additionally, conserved WCC photoreceptor orthologs (FaWC1 and FaWC2) may also perform divergent roles in some fungal species such as light signals to regulate UV resistance, secondary metabolism and sexual reproduction as well as for virulent expression. Response to white light irradiation has also elicited different morphological and physiological changes in various species of fungi such as asexual reproduction and induction or inhibition of several developmental processes. Mushrooms also requires light for developmental processes such as the asexual stage for completion of its life cycle whereas it is unnecessary at the vegetative stage. This review provides some recent crucial impact of light irradiation on the developmental processes of fungi such as sporogenesis, germination/conidiation, reproductive development, pathogenesis, mycotoxin and mushroom development even though they are generally known to be achlorophyllous and non-photosynthetic. Thus, identifying conditions of light regime that will favour fungal development with reduced mycotoxin production will be beneficial to animals and human health. Additionally, developing new techniques to control fungal species may lead to the development of faster and more effective food-processing methods.