Open Access Minireview Article

Strategies for Suppression and Elimination of Onchocerciasis in Endemic Countries: A Review of the Literature

Michael O. Elom, Ifeoma A. Okpara-Elom

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i230136

Onchocerciasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases with great public health importance in the Americas and in many African countries. River blindness, can lead to severe dermatologic and ophthalmologic complications that may terminate in blindness and other associated social stigmatizations. Preventive chemotherapy with the use of annual mass drug administration with ivermectin (Mectizan®) has been the only sustainable management and control measure of the disease in Africa, though with limited efficacy. Based on those limitations, there is doubt that suppression and elimination of the disease targeted to take place in 2020 and 2025 respectively may be actualized. The aim of the review is to update knowledge on existing strategies relevant to achieving suppression and probable elimination of onchocerciasis in endemic countries and to highlight identified obstacles militating against such strategies. Review of past and recently published relevant literature on the topic was carried out using electronic databases such as Google scholar. For feasible suppression and elimination in the stipulated years, some strategies may have to be carried out. The suggested strategies include incorporation of insecticides with chemotherapy, adoption of semi-annually or quarterly ivermectin in-take compliance, inclusion of every member of endemic communities in treatment, avoidance of interruption in drug distribution, correction of misconception of onchocerciasis and use of gold standard diagnostic techniques. With adherence to the suggested strategies of control, the story of onchocerciasis as a public health problem would become a history and the disease could be elimination in all transmission foci.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Romanian Philatelic issue "Hunting", Appeared in 1956

Bogdan-Vasile Cioruța, Alexandru Leonard Pop, Mirela Coman, Andrei Nicolae Helindian

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i230135

Because Romania is placing an increasing emphasis on biodiversity conservation, it is appropriate to bring into discussion a series of aspects that alter the idea of conservation. One of the activities in question is hunting. Therefore, continuing the extensive project to promote protected natural heritage and biodiversity, we decided to focus this time on the hunting act and its pure artistic interpretations, introducing the idea of hunting associated with philately. In this sense, the first topic addressed is the first issue of Romanian postage stamps dedicated exclusively to hunting, which appeared at the beginning of 1956. Since then and until now, at the beginning of 2021, philately has been constantly enriched with issues between the most interesting and unique at the same time. The aim of this paper is to make known to the public and to promote nationally and internationally the term sustainable hunting, as an alarm signal for the deplorable state in which game species are treated, some of which even reach endangered. The results of the research undertaken emphasize the mass character of thematic philately and the fundamental role - as an ambassador of knowledge promotion - that it has had over time. Regarding the first philatelic issue that addresses this issue, we can say that it was a welcome one among the collectors of philatelic effects, as well as among those who used the postal service of the time. At the same time, from the large mass of pieces identified as belonging to the issue in question, the key findings are that the hunt was fully felt and known, at least locally and regionally, through the philatelic circulations exposed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant growing Structures and Media on Yield of Tomato in the Rooftop Garden

Most Tania Akter, Mohammad Mahbub Islam, Parvin Akter Bithy, Suraya Parvin, Md. Ehtasham Bari

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 36-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i230137

This experiment was carried out at the rooftop garden of the Department of Agricultural Botany, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University (SAU), Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh from October 2017 to March 2018 to evaluate the response of tomato to different plant growing structures and composition of growing media in the rooftop garden. The experiment had two factors, factor A- two plant growing structures, viz., S1 = Plastic pot, S2 = Earthen pot and factor B - six different plant growing medium viz. M0 = Soil 100% (w/w) + inorganic fertilizer (IF)/(control), M1 = Soil 80% (w/w) + 20% cowdung (w/w) + IF, M2 = Soil 70% (w/w) + 30% cowdung (w/w) + IF, M3 = Soil 90% (w/w) + 10% vermicompost (w/w) + IF, M4 = Soil 80% (w/w) + 20% vermicompost (w/w) + IF, M5 = Soil 80% (w/w) + 10% cowdung (w/w) + 10% vermicompost (w/w) + IF. The factorial experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. The experimental results yield contributing characters and yield of tomato significantly influenced by different plant growing structures and various composition of plant growing media and also their combination. Considering plant growing structures, the S1 gave the highest flower clusters per plant, flowers per plant, fruit length and fruit breadth.  The maximum yield of fruits per plant (1.69 kg) was also obtained from plastic pot. The M5 had the highest flower clusters per plant, flowers per plant, fruit length and fruit diameter. The maximum yield of fruits per plant (2.17 kg) was recorded from the M5. The highest yield of fruits per plant (2.15 kg) was obtained from the treatment combination of S1M5. This experimental results suggest that S1M5 be able to increase the fruit yield of BARI tomato14 for rabi season in the rooftop garden.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Crude Protein, Total Phenolic and Antioxidant Contents of Raw and Commercially Packed Turmeric and Red Chilies

Rubaiat Nazneen Akhand, Shoriful Islam, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan Khan

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 47-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i230139

Background: Turmeric and red chili are the common spices used for cuisine preparation in Bangladesh. Commercially packed turmeric and red chili might have decreased nutrient contents compared to raw turmeric and red chili.

Aims:  The study aimed to compare some of the nutrient values between the commercially packed and raw turmeric and red chili.

Methods: Commercially packed turmeric and red chili with different brand names (Radhuni, Tiger and Pran) and in raw turmeric and red chili were purchased from local market. Proximate analyses - dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) and mineral contents were performed. The total phenolics and total tannin contents were determined using appropriate methods.

Results: The proximate analysis results showed that both Radhuni (97.56 mg/g) and Tiger (97.28 mg/g) turmeric revealed significantly higher content of DM (p<0.001). No notable difference was observed in CP value. Crude fiber value displayed significantly highest value (p<0.001) in Tiger brand (4.96 mg/g) and the lowest in Radhuni brand (1.76 mg/g). Mineral content was significantly (p<0.05) highest in raw turmeric (9.97 mg/g). A significantly higher amount (p<0.001) of DM in packed chili was recorded. Tiger chili contained significantly higher amount of CP (6.02 mg/g) and CF (9.31 mg/g) while Radhuni contained the lower amount of CP (4.81 mg/g) and CF (2.48 mg/g). Raw chili had significantly higher amount of ash (13.24 mg/g). Examination revealed significant level (p<0.001) of total phenolics in acetone extracts of Tiger turmeric and chili powder. Significant amount of tannin was found in raw turmeric (33.89 µg/g; p<0.005); however, Pran brand of turmeric had the lowest amount of tannin (9.53 µg/g). Tannin content recorded in red chili was significantly (p<0.001) higher in commercially packed Tiger brand which was 16.57 µg/g compared to raw red chili (3.315 µg/g). Antioxidant analysis showed higher antioxidant activity in both raw turmeric and red chili powder.

Conclusion:  Tiger brand turmeric ensures the standard moisture, fiber and protein contents as well as the amount of phenolics and tannin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forage Value of Some Popcorn (Zea mays L. everta) Genotypes

Abdullah Oktem, Yıldız Kahramanoglu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i230140

In this study, it was aimed to determine forage yield and yield characteristics of some popcorn (Zea mays L. everta) genotypes and find out the using possibilities of popcorn as a feed material. Study was carried out during the second crop growing season under Sanliurfa, Turkey climatic conditions in 2017. The experiment was designed complete randomized blocks design with three replicates. In the research 13 popcorn new genotypes were used as a crop material. In the study, tassel flowering duration values ranged from 52.0 day to 58.0 day, plant height from 161.23 cm to 210.20 cm, leaf number from 11.16 to 13.90 number ear-1, stem diameter from 21.12 mm to 25.39 mm. Also, another characteristic such as height of fist ear value values were between 74.1 cm and 111.4, biomass yield between 5092.9 kg da-1 and 8069.28 kg da-1. Dry matter yield values varied from 1812.28 to 3333.54 kg da-1, harvest index from 17.72% to 41.64%. When the plant height, biomass yield and dry matter yield values evaluated together for forage value of popcorn genotypes it was determined that 5YTR1305, AYCİN R-997, KUM1347 and 235EAD05 popcorn genotypes was found better than others. It was observed that biomass yield in popcorn plant reached 8 tons da-1 and dry matter yield over 3 tons da-1. It has been seen that popcorn can be used as a feed source for livestock animals.