Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthes with Respect to Age, Sex and Breeds of Chicken Slaughtered at Eke Awka Market, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

J. C. Ozougwu, C. A. Imakwu, S. C. Eziuzor, J. E. Ekeleme, O. P. Okeke, G. U. Amana, J. C. Ogbodo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i130129

Aim: This research was designed to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthes with respect to age, sex and breeds of chicken slaughtered at Eke-Awka Market, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Fecal specimen was obtained from 150 Chicken slaughtered at Eke-Awka, Market, Anambra State, Nigeria from August to October 2019. The Fecal specimen was processed following floatation and the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration techniques. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics to get the percentage prevalence and chi-square to determine the association of prevalence in relation to age, sex and breeds of the chickens; level of significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: Out of the 150 fecal specimens examined, 63 were found to be infected with intestinal helminthes parasites, giving a prevalence of 42%. The parasites found were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Raillietina cesticillus. Raillietina cesticillus was observed to have the highest prevalence which is 16.7%. With respect to gender, a total of 38 males were found to be infected by helminthes parasites and the prevalence among males was 25.3%. Raillietina cesticillus infected the highest number of male chickens 17 (44.7%). A total of 25 female chickens were infected, with a prevalence of 16.7%, Ascaridia galli infected the highest number of female chickens 11 (44%). With respect to age groups, a total of 24 chickens aged (0 – 5) months were infected with a prevalence of 16%. Raillietina cesticillus had the highest infection rate 12 (50%). In the age group (6 – 10) months, a total of 21 chickens were infected giving a prevalence rate of 14%. Ascaridia galli recorded the highest infection rate 9 (49.9%). Among age group 11 months and above, the total number of infected chickens was 18, giving a prevalence rate of 12%. Heterakis gallinarum recorded the highest infection rate 8 (44.4%). With respect to breeds, a total of 28 old layer chickens were found to be infected by helminthes parasites and its prevalence was 18.7%, Raillietina cesticillus had the highest infection rate 13 (46.4%). The broiler had a total infection rate of 22 which gave a prevalence of 14.7%. Raillietina cesticillus had the highest infection rate of 9 (40.9%). Among the Native chickens, the total number of infections was 13 and its prevalence rate was 8.7%. Ascaridia galli recorded the highest infection rate which was 8 (61.5%).

Conclusions: The overall prevalence of intestinal helminthes was 42%, the helminthes parasites found were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Raillietina cesticillusRaillietina cesticillus was observed to have the highest prevalence 16.7%. Government and poultry owners should ensure that good caging and management systems are adopted to prevent the spread of intestinal helminthes among chickens so as to ensure maximum output from poultry production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Evaluation of the Mechanical Drying of the Grain of Coffea arabica from Honduras

Fredy Torres Mejía, Jhunior Marcía Fuentes, Juan Torres Mejía, Flavio Hernández Bonilla, Ricardo Santos Alemán, Ingris Varela, Shirin Kazemzadeh, Ismael Montero Fernández

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i130131

The aim of this research work was to evaluate the methods of mechanical drying of coffee beans (Coffea arabica) from energy evaluations. The control variables were the drying of the grain and energy was used as the response variable, measured in Tonnes of Oil Equivalent (TEP), Barrels of Oil Equivalent (BEP), and Tonnes of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (Ton CO2eq). The evaluations on the three methods of mechanical coffee drying indicate that the rotary dryer requires 1.0 TEP equivalent to 1.017 kg CO2eqkg-1 in dry parchment coffee (CPS), however, the vertical drying method requires 1.12 TEP (0.616 kg CO2eqkg-1 in CPS) and the static dryer requires 0.5 TEP (0.33 Kg CO2eqkg-1 in CPS). Furthermore, the biomass energy consumption in the rotary dryer is 12.60 MJkg-1, in the vertical dryer it is 7.46 MJkg-1, and the static dryer is 3.91 MJkg-1. These results indicate that the rotary dryer uses 91.95% of the biomass energy, the vertical dryer uses 90.31%, and the static dryer 90.68%. Concluding that rotary drying has a higher biomass energy consumption and reduces CO2 emissions kg-1 in dry parchment coffee, this method is also preferred by cuppers, as it preserves the sensory qualities of the coffee and contributes to reducing the impact. the environment in the consumption of electrical energy and the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, these predictors need more work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Retinoic Acid on the Development of Neural Tube at Early Stages of Chicken Embryo

Kawakeb A. Saad, Eman A. Alsageer

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i130132

Aims: this study aimed to find out the effect of application of 1.5 mg\ml of retinoic acid on chicken development at different stages of neural tube development.

Methodology: thirty fertile domestic Gallus gallus eggs were divided into three groups of 10 eggs for each. These groups repeated four time for four different stages HH8, HH10, HH15 and HH18. Retinoic acid (RA) or dimethyl sulphoxide (DEMSO) was injected through the air sac, and the eggs were incubated for another 24 h. Eggs were opened after 24 or 48 h of incubation, and the embryos were evaluated morphologically and histologically.

Results: The results of this experiment indicated that, In control group and DEMSO group none exhibited neural tube defects neural tube (NTDs). However group treated with 1.5mg/ml of RA exhibit sever NTDs and malformed at the head, cranial and cardiac regions. Shape of the lumen and spatial arrangement of the cell populations of floor plate and roof plate of neural tube has been changed after RA treatment.

Conclusion: Association of excises RA with neural tube defects was demonstrated in the present study on neurulation process during embryogenesis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Salacia korthalsiana Miq (Polipog) of Mamanwa Tribe in Las Navas, Northern Samar

Regina O. Belga, Florencio P. Mahinay, Manuela Cecille G. Vicencio

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i130133

This study was conducted to document the Salacia korthalsiana Miq which is locally known as Polipog for the treatment of various ailments among the Mamanwa tribe in the barangay San Isidro, Las Navas, Northern Samar. The plant part used and the mode of preparation and treatment are also included in the documentation. Medicinal uses of Salacia korthalsiana Miq (Polipog) was gathered through interviews using semi-structured questionnaire. The tribe’s chieftain, elders and faith healers (also known as albularyos) were involved in providing information on the Salacia korthalsiana Miq (Polipog) documentation as medicinal plants and utilized by the Mamanwa tribe to treat different kinds of diseases and ailments. The most frequently used plant part was the leaves, roots and stems. The methods applied in the preparations of the plant were decoction, pounding, cutting, chopping into smaller pieces, extracting the juice and applied directly to the affected area. The most common health problems treated by the plants were menstrual problems, itchiness, wounds, anti-inflammatory, lowering of fever, cough and colds, hypertension, and asthma. Mode of treatment were administered orally and externally. Documentation of the claimed medicinal plants by local communities will not only provide a baseline data but also unlock opportunities for the discovery and development of new and less expensive plant-based medicines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/Rif Assay and the Conventional Methods for Detection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) Camps in Gombe State

Lynn Maori, Kabiru Muhammed, Garba Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 29-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2021/v11i130134

Background: Tuberculosis is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential for early disease management.

Aim: This study evaluated the performance of gene expert MTB/ RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampin (RIF) resistance with conventional methods.

Methods: A total of 130 sputum samples from suspected tuberculosis patients were examined from July 2019 to August 2019.

Results: Fifty-nine patients 59(45.4%) were males and seventy-one 71 patients (54.6%) were females. Seventeen patients (13.07%) had tuberculosis. Of the 17 Confirmed tuberculosis patients, 6(35.2%) were ZN positive, 11(64.7%) were GeneXpert positive and 17(100%) were positive to TB Culture. One sample showed false-positive GeneXpert result. The GeneXpert assay achieved 47.1% sensitivity, 97.3% specificity, 72.7% Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and 92.4% Negative Predictive Value (NPV) while ZN Staining method had 35.3% Sensitivity, 97.27% Specificity, 100% PPV and 91.1% NPV. GeneXpert detected 5(29.41%) Rifampicin resistant TB. The risk factors associated with tuberculosis in this study had HIV (17.6%), Malnutrition (13.8%) and Overcrowding (15.3%).

Conclusion: GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is a helpful tool for rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment of TB. However, the use of Genexpert does not eliminate the need of conventional microscopy, culture and anti-tubercular sensitivity that are required to monitor the progression of treatment.