Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ocimum gratissimum L. on Growth and Egg Size of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, Temmick)

Asolo Chioma Helen, Okeke John Joseph, Okafor Ukamaka Elizabeth, Mmayie Francis Nnamdi, Okpoko Obinna Valentine

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i330106

There is need to look for ingredients to be added to the poultry feed used to raise quail birds for better results on the birds and to enhance quail farming in Nigeria.

Aim: This study was carried out to conduct a twelve weeks feeding trial to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of Ocimum gratissimum on growth, egg size using  two (2) weeks old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty birds were allocated to four dietary treatment groups with three (3) replicates of ten (10) birds each in a completely randomized design experiment with feeding ratio of Control (C) containing 0 g/kg; T1, 20 g/kg; T2, 40 g/kg and T3, 60 g/kg of dried and ground Ocimum gratissimum. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experimental period.

Results: The result obtained showed that for Weight gain (WG), Percentage weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SRG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), the T1, (20 g/kg) had the highest values (122.56 g, 234%, 0.623 and 23.49 respectively) while T3, (60 g/kg) had the least values (81.92 g, 156%, 0.487, 34.92 respectively) as a result of weight loss. But the C, (0 g/kg) had the highest value of 9.149 for protein efficiency ratio (PER) as T3, (60 g/kg) had the least value (5.535). T2, (40 g/kg) had the highest values for mean egg weight, length, width (10.01, 8.77 and 7.81 respectively) while T1, (20 g/kg) had the least values (8.84, 7.63 and 6.70 respectively). Weight gain, feed utilization indices and egg size were the response criteria that were monitored, recorded and subjected to Anova and T-test. There were significant difference (P≤0.05) observed for mean weight gain, percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, circumference of the widest point of the eggs at long axis (length) while no significant difference (P>0.05) were observed for weight of eggs and circumference of the widest point of the eggs at short axis (width).

Conclusion: From this study, quail birds fed T1, (20 g/kg) gave the results with no negative effect on the birds and can be recommended in Japanese quail diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urban Green Infrastructure Development as Perceived by Urban Household in Chittagong City of Bangladesh

Md. Kamrul Islam, Kishwar Jahan Chowdhury, Mohammad Shafiul Alam

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i330107

Aims: Along with different initiatives in public and private sectors Chittagong city dwellers are also contributing to increasing urban greenery. This study was aimed to find their perception and contribution to urban greenery development.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Chittagong city of Bangladesh in four different residential areas between May 2019 and June 2019.

Methodology: We have surveyed 100 respondent families who were selected through purposive random sampling. After sorting we have used MS excel 2010 to analyze the data.

Results: The study revealed that household people covered 13.04% of the total household area by greener infrastructure which is about 179.07sq.ft per household. In this study it is found that 49.99% of the respondents practice indoor plantation, 62.44% have roof-top gardening where only 17.61% have gardens in their premises. 128 species have been in their household area of which 36 flowerings, 33 fruits 36 vegetables, 12 medicinal additionally 11 are ornamental plant species. It has also revealed in the study that 14% house-hold directly uses the roof where 86% use containers for their rooftop garden. They use compost manure, inorganic fertilizer, and food waste as manure. Where 6% prefer composting, 73% is food waste and 21% use inorganic fertilizer. According to 27% of people, the environmental benefits derived from the household greenery are the main reason for developing their garden where 26% claimed it for recreation, 24% for aesthetic and 13% for the religious benefit and only 10% do it for monetary benefit.

Conclusion: Household people can be an important catalyst for “Urban green infrastructure development.” Hope this study will be an expedient caseworker on the way of planning for sustainable Chittagong city development which will embed the Environment and Urbanism in a frame of ‘Sustainable Urban Development’.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathic Interactions of Parthenium hysterophorous with Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

H. M. Tsingalia, J. M. Auma

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i330108

Allelopathy, an important mechanism in invasive species stems from the lack of coevolved tolerance of indigenous species to novel chemicals released by the invader species. These chemicals are key to successful invasive of species of natural plant communities and ecosystems. This study analyzed the allelopathic effects of the invasive plant, Parthenium hysterophorous on the growth of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). One hundred and fifty viable kidney bean seeds were washed in distilled water, and transferred in triplicates to pots with wet sterile sand. Ten grams of freshly collected Parthenium leaves and roots were weighed, grounded separately using a mortar and a pestle, mixed with 100 ml of distilled water in a beaker and left for 24 hours in a dark at a room temperature (250C). The aqueous extract filtrates were used in experimental treatments. While untreated (control) seeds germinated on day 4 seeds treated with leaf extract germinated on day 14 and day 9 for the root extract. Leaf extract inhibited germination and sprouting of new leaves more effectively than root extract. Leaves in control seeds appeared on day 1 after germination. In treated seeds, leaves appeared on the 4th day then stagnated until day 15 when more leaves sprouted. Root extract significantly depressed seed germination. The number of new leaves increased significantly in control seedlings compared to the treated ones. Combined root and leaf extracts highly significantly inhibited of seed germination and the number of new leaves. Additionally, combined treatment with root and leaf extracts significantly inhibited shoot growth, and the increase in leaf length and width. A comparison of the effectiveness of the root and leaf extracts showed that leaf extract was more effective in inhibiting shoot growth and leaf width than the root extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Toxicity Analysis of Ricinus communis

Joshua, P. Elijah, Chukwuka, R. Somadina, A. V. Arazu, Ngoga Godfrey, M. C. Ogwuegbu, S. Cosmas

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i330109

Medicinal plants play a vital role in ensuring proper health is attained by human beings due to their antioxidants constituents. The large family Euphorbiaceae contain nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, Ricinus communis or castor bean plant has high traditional and medicinal values towards a disease-free community. The objective of this study focuses on the phytochemical constituents and  phytotoxicity perspective of the R. communis plant. The castor bean plant is effective and is thought to have antifertility, anti-nociceptive, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepato-protective, antidiabetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial bone regeneration, central analgesic, antihistamine, anti-asthmatic, cytotoxic, lipolytic, anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential. The seeds of R. communis were deshelled and manually separated from its shells. They were divided into three based on different methanol extraction (Fermented, Unfermented and Crystals of methanol extracts of unfermented). The quantitative phytochemical analysis showed variations in the phytochemical content of the unfermented and fermented methanol extracts respectively, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, soluble carbohydrates, hydrogen cyanides, steroids and phenols.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antihelminthic Activity, Phytochemical Profile and Microscopic Features of Ocimum basilicum Collected in DR Congo

Carlos N. Kabengele, Etienne M. Ngoyi, Giresse N. Kasiama, Jason T. Kilembe, Aristote Matondo, Clement L. Inkoto, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Clement M. Mbadiko, Jean Jacques D. Amogu, Gedeon N. Bongo, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Pius T. Mpiana

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i330110

Aim: The main aim of the present study is to validate the bioactivity of O. basilicum, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat helminthiasis in DRC.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty, University of Kinshasa, between June 2018 and March 2019.

Methodology: Different parts (stems, leaves and flowers) of O. basilicum and specimens of earthworms of Benhamia rosea were collected and identified at University of Kinshasa. Micrographic examination was carried out using Biolux NV microscope and X-ray fluorescence method for mineral content determination. Radical scavenging activity was performed using the ABTS radical test.

Results: Microscopic analysis of O. basilicum powder revealed various histological elements like crystalline fibres, sclerotic fibres, fragments of spiral vessels, pluricellular hairs and glandular hairs. Phytochemical screening in solution and by TLC revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponins), alkaloids, steroids, coumarins, terpenoids, irridoids and anthraquinones. 20 elements including calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, chlorine, aluminium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, strontium, rubidium, bromine, silver, vanadium, neodymium, silicium and lead were determined. The aqueous extract of O. basilicum showed good dose-dependent antihelminthic activity and radical scavenging activity with IC50: 27.04 ± 4.58 µg/mL.

Conclusion: This study provides an additional information on the mineral composition and antihelminthic activity of O. basilicum growing in DRC. The antihelminthic activity of this plant could be associated to the presence of flavonoids. To the current knowledge, no study on the histological elements of O. basilicum is available in the literature.