Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Root Extract of Panicum maximum

John A. Udobang, Jude E. Okokon, Daniel N. Obot, Utibe A. Edem

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i230101

Background: Panicum maximum root is used routinely to treat ailments such as malaria, fever, pains and inflammatory diseases by traditional medicine practitioners.

Aim: The study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. maximum root so as to validate its uses by practitioners of traditional medicine.

Methodology: The root of P. maximum (dried powdered material) was extracted in ethanol using cold maceration technique. The root crude extract (137 –547 mg/kg) of P. maximum was investigated for anti-inflammatory activity using various experimental models; carrageenan, egg albumin and xylene - induced edema models.

Results: The root extract of P. maximum caused significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) reduction of inflammation induced by the phlogistic agents in a dose-dependent fashion. The recorded anti-inflammatory effects were comparable to those initiated by 100 mg/kg acetyl salicylic acid (ASA, standard drug) used in some of the models here. The anti-inflammatory effect of this plant may be attributed to the phytochemical constituents of the plant.

Conclusion: The findings from this research confirm the ethnomedical use of Panicum maximum root in treating inflammatory conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nematocidal Activity on Onchocerca ochengi, Toxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Vernonia perrottetii Sch. Bip. Ex Walp (Asteraceae) Extracts

Megnigueu Mimi Elodie, Nveikoueing Francis, Ngatcha Zouakeu Katoucha Sidoine, Djedoubouyom Name Elysee, Kouam Fogue Siméon, Ndjonka Dieudonné

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 8-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i230102

Onchocerciasis is a disease caused by a parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus in human.  Ivermectin who is the main drug recommended for the treatment of this disease is only effective against the microfilarial stage of the parasite. Reports of emergence of parasite resistance to ivermectin have complicated onchocerciasis treatment and require to discover novel drugs. The objective of the present study was to investigate in vitro anthelmintic properties against the cattle filarial parasite Onchocerca ochengi, a model closely related to Onchocerca volvulus; and evaluate the toxicity (in vivo) of local medicinal plant Vernonia perrottetii. This plant is used as alternative medicine in the treatment of human onchocerciasis in central and coastal regions of Cameroon. Fifteen crude extracts were prepared from various parts of V. perrottetii using three organic solvents (70% ethanol, methanol, methylene chloride) and distilled water. The nematocidal activity was evaluated on adult worms of O. ochengi, worm viability was assessed biochemically using the dimethylthiazol (MTT) formazan assay. Oral toxicity of the promising extract was investigated in mice. The ethanolic extracts of the leaves and roots of V. perrottetii recorded the highest activities against adult male worms (LC50 of 29.80 μg/mL for leaves and 39.36 μg/mL for root). By contrast, the methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves and roots, of the plant as well as the mixture methylene chloride/methanol extracts. For acute treatment, a single dose of 2000 mg/kg no induced critical behavioral changes or death. In sub- acute treatment, daily oral administration of hydro-ethanolic extracts of leaves at the dose of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg revealed disturbances in the normal growth of animals as well as liver and kidney alterations. Phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of Polyphenols, tannins, saponins and flavonoids. This study revealed the anti-Onchocerca activities of V. perrottetii, indicating a possible new source for developing a phytomedicine or drug for the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Croton zambesicus Root Extract Exert Laxative Effect in Rats

Jude E. Okokon, Augustine I. L. Bassey, Emmanuel E. Nyong, Utibe A. Edem

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 22-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i230103

Background: Croton zambesicus Muell Arg. (Euphorbiaceace) is a medicinal plant used traditionally in the treatment of some ailments.

Aim: The root extract of Croton zambesicus was evaluated for effect on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

Materials and Methods: The root extract of C. zambesicus (27-81 mg/kg) was investigated for laxative effect in rats using different experimental models to study its effect on the GIT.

Results: The extract was found to significantly increase the frequency and output of faecal matters in rats in all the experimental models studied.

Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the root extract of C. zambesicus has a significant laxative effect and this supports its use in ethnomedicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Infestation of Cockroach and Their Perceived Importance in Yalanguruza and Nassarawo Communities, Gombe, Nigeria

Ezra Abba, Abubakar Jibrin Ibrahim, Kennedy Poloma Yoriyo, Blessing Chinwendu Emmanuel

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i230104

Aims: Poor sanitation is strongly associated with an increased cockroach infestation. In line with this, the study was carried out to ascertain and quantify the level of cockroach infestation and their perceived importance in Yalanguruza and Nassarawo communities.

Study Design: Each community was sectioned into four longitudinal zones and 50 houses were randomly selected from each zone for the collection of samples and administration of questionnaires.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out between May and August 2018. Samples were collected in Yalanguruza and Nassarawo communities of Gombe and identified in the Department of Biological Sciences, Gombe State University.

Methodology: A total of 409 cockroaches were collected from different sources in residential homes, 208 in Yalanguruza and 201 in Nassarawo using Hercules mouse glue board with pieces of Cray-fish as baits and were preserved and identified to their respective species. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain the perception of the respondents in the communities about cockroaches. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered in each of the communities.

Results: Up to 78% of the respondents had low knowledge of cockroach infestation and 66% attributed infestation to poor sanitation. The most-reported perception of cockroaches habitation in homes was toilets (66.5%) while the majority (57%) of the respondents knew that cockroaches can be vectors of diseases. 68.5% of the respondents used insecticides in controlling cockroaches. Food items compared to other items showed to be the most commonly affected by the cockroaches with 48% of the respondent attesting that. Cockroach species identified from the two communities were Periplaneta americana with the highest frequency value of 196(47.9%), Blattela germanica 94(23.0%), Supella longipalpa 67(16.4%), Blatta orientalis 38(9.3%) and Arinevaga floredensis 14(3.4%). The highest numbers of cockroaches were obtained from Yalanguruza, 208(50.9). Out of the 409 cockroaches collected, 314(76.8%) were from toilets, 30(7.35%) from bedrooms and 65(15.80%) from kitchens.

Conclusion: High infestation of cockroaches in the study communities was observed and there are poor knowledge and perception of cockroaches in the communities; hence there is a need to sensitize the people in the communities on the potential public health impact of cockroaches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meteorus gyrator (Thunberg) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) In Egypt: Geographical Distribution and Mass-production

Mohamed Ahmed Gesraha, Amany Ramadan Ebeid

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i230105

Background: The larval internal parasitoids in the genus Meteorus attack certain lepidopterous larvae in different Egyptian fields. Two species, M. rubens and M. gyrator were the most abundant species reared from several lepidopterous larval species, which feed on different host plants in the two selected Governorates in Egypt throughout two successive years.

Aim: This work presents a method specifically designed to improve the abundance and the parasitizing potential of M. gyrator in open fields to parasitize and develop on a broad range of noctuid’s pests by releasing considerable number of the parasitoid adults. Also it deals with some aspects of the basic biology of M. gyrator parasitizing Spodoptera littoralis and Autugrapha ni, as mass-rearing hosts.

Methodology: 1- Population Dynamics

Biweekly samples of lepidopterous larvae were collected from different host plants in the fields of Giza and Faiyum Governorates, for two successive years (November, 2017 to October, 2019). Collected larvae were confined individually under constant conditions until pupation or the emergence of the internal parasitoid’s larvae for pupation.

2- Laboratory Rearing

Cultures of some insect larvae, Heliothis armigera, Spodoptera exigua, Agrotis ipsilon, Sesamia cretica, S. littoralis and Autographa ni were reared in laboratory under constant conditions to act as hosts for mass-production of the parasitoid, M. gyrator.

Results: Obtained results reveal that A. ipsilon was the main host of M. rubens, it was more abundant in both years and localities of the survey. Meteorus gyrator was recorded at fewer numbers; it was reared from S. littoralis, S. exigua, S. critica, Heliothis spp. and Autographa spp. The parasitism percentage by M. rubens averaged 23.10% at Giza. While in the case of M. gyrator it averaged 3.25%. In Faiyum, the corresponding figure averaged 12.96% parasitism for M. rubens; while it averaged 6.93%, for M. gyrator. To increase the efficacy of M. gyrator, mass production experiments were carried out, suggesting that Autographa ni was the most suitable for mass-rearing than S. littoralis.

Conclusion: To increase the efficacy of M. gyrator as an endoparasitoid, its numbers in the field should be increased by releasing a considerable number of adults, to control lepidopterous larval pests.