Open Access Short Research Article

A Novel Mathematical Equation for a Noninvasive Determination of the Number of Alveoli of the Human Lung

Ikechukwu I. Udema

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i130098

Background: There had always been a spirited effort in understanding the transport of air or molecular oxygen plus other gases from alveolar air space into the pulmonary capillaries and from the latter back into the former using mathematical models; the determination of the number of alveoli using cadaver and invasive and partially noninvasive methods have been made. There is a need for a noninvasive method of mathematical nature, with evaluative, diagnostic, and prognostic application.

Objectives: The objectives of this research were to derive a mathematical equation for the noninvasive determination of the number of alveoli during rest and physical activity and elucidate the usefulness and advantage of the model over known methods.

Methods: Theoretical and computational (calculational) methods; data in the literature were substituted into the model mathematical equation for the computation of the number of alveoli in the human lungs.

Results and Discussion: The computed number (Nalv) of alveoli differed from one country or subcontinental region to another. The Nalv for the male were expectedly larger than for the female subjects.

Conclusion: The mathematical equation for totally noninvasive determination by computation is derivable and was derived. The total number (Nalv) of alveoli mobilised for function is a function of the width (d) of the nares (d 22/15), rate (Rv) of gas flow , and radius (ralv) of a functional alveolus . The equation has the potential to be of diagnostic, evaluative and prognostic value in medical practice. This new computational approach could be faster than other known approaches for the determination of the Nalv. A noninvasive approach by computation, relying on other noninvasively determined respiratory parameters, can eliminate the possibility of tissue damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Depth and Seasons on the Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality of Selected Well Water Samples in Awka Urban, Anambra State, Nigeria

M. U. Orji, S. C. Onuorah, M. O. Ifemeje, O. R. Umeh

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i130096

Background: The people of Awka urban show an increasing trend of using well water resulting to unreliable and quality-compromised water supply.

Aim: Effects of depth and seasons on the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of selected well water samples in Awka urban, Anambra State was conducted to determine their quality and suitability for domestic uses. A total of thirty shallow and deep well water samples were collected during the rainy and dry seasons.

Methods: Physicochemical analysis was carried out using standard analytical methods. The total bacterial count was determined by dilution method.

Results: Some of the physicochemical parameters (PH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, cadmium, lead and arsenic) exceeded the World Health Organization maximum containment levels indicating that the samples were unfit for domestic uses. The bacterial counts ranged from 2.66 to 3.26 logcfu/ml during the rainy season and 2.54 to 3.20 logcfu/ml during the dry season. The total coliform counts also exceeded the W.H.O levels. Citrobacter freundii, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Proteus vulgaris, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were isolated during both seasons and identified using standard analytical procedures. The bacterium that had the highest frequency of occurrence during the rainy season was Citrobacter freundii (16.55%) while Salmonella typhi had the highest frequency of occurrence during the dry season (17.69%) respectively. Proteus vulgaris had the least frequency of occurrence 5.41% and 4.62% during the rainy and dry seasons respectively. The results were analyzed statistically using two-way analysis of variance. Higher bacterial counts were recorded in rainy season and shallow wells than dry season and deeper wells.

Conclusion: The presence of these bacteria above admissible limits showed that the water lacked proper water management services and may be harmful to humans. There is therefore a need to monitor the well water quality by employing better sanitary practices and subjecting the waters through various forms of water treatments before use to help prevent disease outbreak.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Histopathological Effects of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy in Healthy Mice

Ukamaka Elizabeth Okafor, Asolo Chioma Helen, Ogonna Daniel Nwankwo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i130097

Artemisinin-based combination therapy had been recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Africa.      

Aim: This study investigated the effects of artesunate/amodiaquine (A/A) and dihydroartemisinin/ piperaquine (D/P) on some blood parameters and histopathology of the liver and kidney of mice.

Materials and Methods: A Complete randomized design was applied. Fifty mice were randomly assigned to five treatment groups of ten animals each. Therapeutic doses of the drugs were orally administered to the animals. Group A received normal saline (control), group B received 10/14mg/kg body weight of artesunate/amodiaquine for 3 days, group C received 10/18mg/kg of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine for 3 days, group D received similar treatment with group B, but were followed up to 28 days, group E received similar treatment with group C but were also followed up to 28 days. After experimental period, blood samples were collected for determination   of white blood cell count, white blood cell differential count, red blood cell count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration. Liver and kidney were also harvested for histopathological analysis.

Results: Result showed that therapeutic doses of artesunate/amodiaquine and dihydroaretmisinin/ piperaquine had no significant (P>0.05) effects on heamatological parameters accessed. Mild inflammation and degeneration of hepatocyte were observed in the liver of the group treated with D/P while fatty change was found in the group treated with A/A.  Venous congestion was observed in the kidney of the group treated with D/P. After 28 days, degeneration of hepatocyte and inflammatory cells were observed in the liver. Shrunken glomerulus was found in the kidney of the group treated with D/P.

Conclusion: These drugs are detrimental to the liver and kidney even at therapeutic dose therefore, they should be used with caution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Comparison of Stem and Leaves of Cupressus sempervirens L. from Cuba

Eva Salas, Chavelys López, Bárbara González, Flavio José Hernández Bonilla, Jhunior Abrahan Marcía Fuentes

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i130099

The Cupressus sempervirens Linnaeus (Cypress) species, belonging to the botanical family of the Cupressaceae, is an arboreal species native to the eastern Mediterranean and is of great importance for presenting metabolites with great therapeutic potential. In Cuba, it is uncommon, and this is the reason why this research took place to compare the chemical characterization of the stem and leaves of the ¨Ciprés¨ of Cuban origin. The present research is the first one in Cuba for the species which underwent a pharmacognostic study of the crude drug and the extracts of the plant parts. To be carried out, quality parameters of the leaves and stem were evaluated where the results obtained met with the specifications described in the official monographs. The Maceration Method was applied using 95% ethanol for the extraction of its chemical constituents. These were qualitatively determined by the Phytochemical Screening Techniques; expressing with greater incidence essential oils, fats, alkaloids, triterpenoids and steroids, resins, reducing sugars, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, mucilages, and bitter principles. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography suggests that the compounds that showed retention time on the stem were 15.2 and 15.9 minutes and the retention times on leaves were 15.2 and 16.0 minutes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breeding Ecology of Amolops himalayanus (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) in Bodidrang Stream, Trashigang District, Bhutan

Ash Bdr Limbu, . Dophu, Aita Bir Biswa, Leki Sonam, Kesang Norbu, Dawa Gyeltshen, Dal Bahadur Basnet, Jamba Gyeltshen, Tshering Nidup

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 56-64
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v10i130100

The breeding activity of Himalayan sucker frog (Amolops himalayanus), was studied under natural conditions at Bodidrang stream, Kanglung, Trashigang, Bhutan, for 12 months. We examined the correlation between meteorological factors (relative humidity, temperature and rainfall) and sightings of adult, juvenile, and tadpole/larvae individuals as well as egg masses from monthly surveys using Pearson Correlation in statistical software (Python 3.6). A. himalayanus was an explosive breeder influenced by the high seasonality in Bhutan. Adult, juvenile, and larvae individuals recorded had a positive Pearson correlation with monthly mean rainfall. There was a strong correlation between rainfall and adult sightings (r=0.732), however tadpoles sightings had a low correlation (r=0.178). We observed moderate positive correlations of temperature and relative humidity with adult (r=0.536; r=0.442) and juvenile (r=0.398; r=0.252) individuals, while tadpoles had low positive correlation for relative humidity (r =0.048) respectively. Brief note of amplexus position of A. himalayanus is discussed.