Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiversity of Soil Microorganisms and their Effects on Disease Management at Black Pepper Farms in Gia Lai Province

Thi Huyen Nguyen, Anh Dzung Nguyen, Nguyen Quang Vinh

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i430091

Research on soil ecological systems, such as the soil characteristics and properties of the soil micro-flora system, is essential in the sustainable production of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).The role of using beneficial microorganisms in the sustainable production of black pepper is in increase because many people are being aware of the hazards associated with consuming products with chemical substances. Twenty-seven soil samples were collected from Chu Se, Chu Prong and Duc Co district of Gia Lai province to determine the relationships between the ecological system, pathogenic fungi and nematodes in black pepper farms. The obtained results showed that the soil micro flora community was quite diverse. The average total density microorganism in Duc Co district, Chu Prong district and Chu Se district was of 8.41x106 CFU/g, 6.76x106 CFU/g and 8.91x106 CFU/g, respectively. The density of average total beneficial microorganisms in Duc Co district, Chu Prong district and Chu Se district was of 20.03x104 CFU/g, 14.25x104 CFU/g and 17.62x104 CFU/g, respectively. The use of organic fertilizers is common to the farms where high microbial densities were recorded. The relationship between the density of beneficial  microorganisms (Nitrogen fixing bacteria, Phosphorus soluble bacteria, Cellulose degradation bacteria) and the density of fungal pathogens and nematodes was negatively correlated with R = - 0.84 and R = - 0.81 respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that the density of beneficial microorganisms in the soil and the incidence of diseases in orchards were negatively correlated (R = - 0.69). This study proposes that the correlation between the basic factor of soil ecological system with pathogenic fungi and nematodes plays a very important role in biological control and the sustainable production of black pepper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Subchronic Toxicological Assessment of Dr Iguedo Goko Cleanser® on Lipid Profile and Serum Antioxidant Enzymes in Exposed Wistar Rats

Godswill J. Udom, Jude E. Okokon, John A. Udobang, Daniel N. Obot, Nkechi J. Onyeukwu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 16-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i430093

Dr Iguedo Goko Cleanser® is a polyherbal mixture promoted as an effective herbal remedy for numerous diseases. Study aimed to evaluate the toxicity concern of the polyherbal mixture (PHM) on lipid profile and oxidative status in Wistar rats of both gender. Acute toxicity study was conducted using modified method of Lorke. Thirty Wistar rats of bother gender were randomly divided into six groups (5/group) and exposed to the polyherbal mixture for 60 days via oral gavage. Control groups (1 and 4) received 10 mL/kg distilled water, while groups 2-3 and 5-6 received 476.24 and 158.75 mg/kg body weight of Dr Iguedo Goko Cleanser® respectively. On 62nd day, animals were sacrificed under diethyl ether anaesthesia; blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. PHM significantly (p < 0.05) increased high density lipoproteins (HDL) levels in male rats as well as high dose female rats relative to control. However, low dose female rats recorded low HDL levels relative to control. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density and very low density lipoprotein levels were significantly reduced in all test groups relative to controls. The low dose males (LDM) had reduced serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity; while increased and decreased GPX and glutathione (GSH) activities were respectively recorded for female rats. Male rats had dose-dependent increase in malondialdehyde. The recorded reductions in serum lipids suggest that the polyherbal mixture may have hypolipidemic potentials. While the increased malondialdehyde as well as decreased GPX and GSH indicate lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress inducing potentials of the PHM. Despite the positive modulation on lipid profile, findings suggest utmost caution on chronic use as its oxidative stress inducing potentials is considerable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Constituents Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from MSR-1707 by GC-MS

Li Pei- Xia, Li Wei- Yi, Jian Tian- Tian, He Dong- Hao, Huang Yi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i430094

Aims: To analyze the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract from MSR-1707 to promote the rational utilization of the mushroom resources.

Methodology: MSR-1707 belongs to the genus Nigrospora sp. It was extracted by ethyl acetate, then the extract was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). Identification of compounds was achieved according to their GC retention indices (RI) and database search using the library of NIST05, as well as a comparison of the fragmentation pattern of the mass spectra with data published in the literature.

Results: Seventy-three compounds were separated by gas chromatography. Based on the NIST05 spectral library and corresponding literature information, fifty-three compounds were identified. Their relative percentage of contents accounted for 95.62% of the outflow peak. Some of the identified peaks are 9-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester(E)(18.50%),9-Tricosene(Z)(8.30%), 13-Docosenamide (E)(5.26%) and Myristic acid glycidyl ester (3.11%).

Conclusion: This is the first report of chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate extract of Nigrospora sp. using GC-MS, which offer some theoretical basis for the further exploration and application of this mushroom.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro: Influence of Various Concentrations of Plant Growth Regulators (BAP & NAA) and Sucrose on Regeneration of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Plant

Fayza R. Al Gethami, Hameda El Sayed Ahmed El Sayed

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 34-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i430095

In vitro: regeneration of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. was achieved from cotyledonary nodes explants. In this study, used 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and α-Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) of plant growth regulators with different concentrations individually as well as in combination and used different concentrations of sugar (sucrose) with different concentrations. For was rooting, used half strength (½MS), full-strength MS and ½ MS supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of NAA. The results mentioned, explant responding (%) to multiplication was about 73% for all BAP treatments compared with control and average numbers of shoot increased with increased BAP concentration except 5 mg/l of BAP. The highest explant responding (%) was in media supplemented BAP without NAA compared other treatments noted that the media with combination of BAP and NAA gives formation of callus in bases of the plantlets. Also, the result inducted the combinations between (BAP–NAA) was highly significantly (P≤ 0.001) and less effective on number of shoots where the highest number of shoot was 3.40 in media with 3 mg/l BAP compared other treatments. The highest of explant responding 93.33% was in media supplement with 10 g/l sucrose and (10 g/l sucrose + 3 mg/l BAP), but sucrose level for good greening and developed shoots (4 shoots) was in medium supplement with 10 g/l sucrose. The shoots rooted well on half-strength MS medium with 60% percentage of root. The rooted shoots were acclimatized and transferred to green house to follow their development.

Open Access Review Article

Droplet Digital PCR – A Superior Complementary Technique for SARS-CoV-2 Detection

I. M. Hussaini, S. Gide, B. Musa, M. A. Sulaiman, A. Usman

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 12-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i430092

Accurate and timely SARS-CoV-2 detection in suspected persons is crucial in the fight against its spread. Many techniques have been developed to meet up with the continuously growing demand, however some of these techniques lack the required accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The current reference standard technique for SARS-CoV-2 detection is RT-PCR, but studies have shown that false-negative results are inevitable and data can be non-reproducible when samples and primers are not appropriately verified and validated. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a newly introduced technique that performs precise nucleic acid quantification. Researchers have evaluated the efficacy of ddPCR and the technique has shown promising results even in specimens with low viral load. ddPCR has shown increased accuracy, precision, sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it is less affected by annealing and amplification inhibitors. This suggests that ddPCR can be used as a complementary detection technique especially in convalescent cases.