Open Access Original Research Article

Population Dynamics and Seasonal Abundance of the Beetle Oryctes owariensis Beavois, 1807 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Raphia Palms in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Ukoroije, Rosemary Boate, Abalis, Richard Otayor

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 14-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i330087

Oryctes owariensis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) beetle is a destructive insect pest of both raphia and oil palms, causing damage to the fronds and trunk thus leading to low yields and subsequent death of infested palms. This study was aimed at monitoring the seasonal abundance of the beetle using visual lure or light traps suspended on poles around raphia palm farms designed as experimental sites (Locations A, B, C and D) for a duration of two years (2018 and 2019) in Bayelsa State. Four sampling seasons were engaged in the study: Four months of dry (January- April) and four months of wet (June- September) yearly. The lamps were powered seven consecutive nights monthly. Beetles trapped were counted daily and the numbers recorded. The result showed that the beetle had one generation per year, was nocturnal with seasonal activity spreading out from dusk to dawn. Adult population was highest within the dry sampling months of March to April as the insects mate for breeding, the wet months June and July recorded drastic fall in the number of trapped beetles while August and September recorded no catch. A total of 283 beetles were captured during the dry season against 8 trapped at the wet. Therefore, the high efficiency of the light traps as capture/ monitor tools in ascertaining the seasonal abundance of Oryctes owariensis beetle in raphia palm farms is a possibility for use in Integrated Pest Management Programs for controlling the pest population before they reach the economic threshold level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioreduction of Heavy Metals Concentration from Tannery Polluted Soil by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus aculeatus

Y. B. Abdullahi, A. H. Ridwan, A. H. Zainab, S. S. D. Mohammed

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 28-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i330088

Reduction of Heavy metals content from the polluted soil by tanneries in sokoto metropolitan using slurry of fungi A. aculeatus, A. niger and co-slurry of both was evaluated. Heavy metal Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr content was determined in duplicate using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) up to 12 weeks. The reduction mean ranged was 6.51-9.09 mg/kg, 3.57-9.33 mg/kg and 2.12-10.12 mg/kg Cu for fungi carrying A. aculeatus, A. niger and co-slurry respectively while Cd, Ni and Pb were removed in all the setup. Chromium was decreased most especially in the co-slurry of both fungi 22.10-113.25 mg/kg. Meanwhile, Heavy metal contents in all the setups were different from the control. The study reveals local tanneries utilized many synthetic chemicals for use in their production which becomes detrimental to our soil environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical and Microbiological Characterizations of the Leaf and Flower Powder of Lippia multiflora Moldenk, a Leaf Vegetable Consumed in Benin

H. W. Djengue, A. Adjatin, G. Agbankpé, Z. Bonou- gbo, A. Tossougbo, J. Hougbénou Houngla, A. Dansi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 41-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i330090

Background: Lippia multiflora Moldenk is a shrub that is present in Benin. It is used as nutritious food and its leaves and flowers are rich in mineral salts and especially vitamin A and C. Also, these leaves and flowers transformed into powders, are sold and used to flavor sauces and for other purposes.

Aim/Objectives: Our work aims to provide consumers with information on the sanitary and hygienic quality of the powders from the leaves and flowers of Lippia multiflora in order to determine their shelf life.

Methods: The study was carried out on three different powders, namely leaf-based powder; those from the flowers and those purchased from the sellers. Physico-chemical analyses and microbiological evaluation were made on these different powders at different dates for 18 months to see the growth of the microorganisms in these powders.

Results: These analyses revealed that the means of the physico-chemical parameters in the leaf-based powders, the flowers and those sampled are respectively: water content (7.42%; 9.89% and 11.67%); ash content (15.83%; 10.77% and 6.52%); pH (7.25; 6.22 and 5.95) and titrable acidity (0.55%; 2.46% and 1.84%). Microbial loads in total flora are below the standard for 18 months in leaf and flower powders but are above the standard in powders sampled after 12 months of storage. The growth of yeasts and molds was observed during the first 6 months and their load is well below the standards from the 7th month until the end of storage. Coliform, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, faecal Streptococci and Clostridium sulfito-reducers loads are below the detection threshold throughout the shelf life.

Conclusion: Therefore the powders based on the leaves and flowers can be kept for a period of eighteen months without risk to the consumer. But those sampled can be kept for up to 12 months.

Open Access Review Article

The New Pandemic Covid-19: Treatment Options and Developments

R. Gayatri, S. Lavanya, Meeran Hussain, John Veslin

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i330086

SARS-CoV-2, the novel infectious causative factor of the new pandemic COVID-19 produced 5934936 total infected cases and 367166 death cases across multiple continents as of May 31, 2020. Majority of the world’s population are still vulnerable to COVID-19. As of now, there are no clear scientific proven treatment or drug to combat covid-19, but prevention and management can reduce the spread of virus. In this crisis, a vaccine, that can train the immune system to fight against this novel coronavirus becomes essential to control the further dissemination of the new pandemic COVID-19. This review provides insights into the on- going treatment options available for COVID-19 including antiviral drugs, Ayurvedic treatment, combination of drugs and plasma therapy. This review also aims to highlight on the development of vaccines and its clinical status.

Open Access Review Article

Microbial Quorum Sensing and Its Role in Biofilm Formation

Aqsa Sana Ullah

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 34-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i330089

Quorum sensing is defined as the effect of fluctuation in cells density on the regulation of gene expression within the cell. Approximately all bacteria produce small molecules (auto-inducers) to control Quorum sensing. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is responsible for auto-inducers production in Gram-negative bacteria. Auto-inducers interaction with particular receptors provokes different behaviours that are under the control of Quorum sensing The presence of fungal Quorum sensing systems was bare eleven years before after the sighting that farnesol panels filamentation in the pathogenic polymorphic fungus Candida albicans. In the previous era, farnesol has been shown to play manifold roles in C. albicans physiology as a signalling molecule and encouragement damaging effects on host cells and other microbes. In addition to farnesol, the aromatic alcohol tyrosol was also initiated to be a C. albicans QSM regulatory growth, morphogenesis and bio film formation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two other aromatic alcohols, phenyl ethanol and tryptophol were found to be QSMs regulating morphogenesis during nitrogen starvation conditions. Moreover, population density-dependent performances that look like QS have been labelled in numerous other fungal species. Although fungal QS investigation is still in its beginning, its detection has changed our opinions about the fungal kingdom and might ultimately lead to the growth of new antifungal therapeutics.