Open Access Original Research Article

Colour Preference by Mosquitoes in Water Board Station at Runjin Sambo Area, Sokoto

H. M. Bandiya, M. A. Yahaya, H. A. Shindi, A. Bello, A. S. Baki

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i230082

Mosquitoes play an important role in promoting the spread of many zoonotic diseases among vertebrates. Their presence and numbers were influenced by the availability of breeding sites. This study reports the occurrence and colour preferences of oviposition in man-made habitats under field conditions by female mosquitoes found in the Water Board Station at Runjin Sambo Area, Sokoto. A total of nine plastic buckets (2 litres) of different colours were used as artificial oviposition container. The colour chosen was black, blue, brown, pink, purple, red, white, and yellow. The containers were filled with an equal amount of water and placed under a shade at 5 cm interval and observed daily for seven days. Mosquito larvae were emptied into a bowl and counted. The result showed that Aedes and Culex larvae were oviposited in all the plastic container with high abundance in a red colour plastic container (25.10 and 26.30% respectively) while Anopheles larvae were more in the black container (25.5%) and Mansoni on brown (23.10%). This suggested that container colour was important in influencing the oviposition choices of some female mosquitoes breeding in artificial containers in the Water Board Station at Runjin Sambo Area Sokoto. It is hoped that the study will help in adopting control measures for the respective mosquito species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Enzymatic Microtoxicity Test for the Toxicity Assay of Chlorophenolic Compounds

Arzu Ünal

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 14-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i230083

Enzymes are proteins that serve as catalysts of biological reactions in the animal, plant, and microbial cells. They are quite specific concerning with regard to their substrates. Enzymes lower the activation energy and increase the rate of biochemical reactions. According to the type of reaction catalyzed, enzymes are currently subdivided into six classes, namely oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases.

The effects of toxic chemicals and chlorophenolic compounds on enzyme activity are determined by fast, useful, and simple enzymatic methods. These methods can be carried out in low volumes and automatically using equipment such as a spectrophotometer, fluorometer and scintillation counters.

In this study, a new microtoxicity test was developed with the use of the fungal and bacterial β-galactosidase enzyme. In the toxicity experiments, the effects of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6 TCP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4 DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (4 CP) over the β-galactosidase enzyme activity were investigated.

In this study, the bacterial and fungal β-galactosidase enzyme was found to be effective in determining the detoxification of some chlorinated phenolic compounds, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,4-DCP, and 4-CP, through the treatment with laccase enzyme. The inhibitor effect of toxic compounds on the activity of the β-galactosidase enzyme was examined. As a result of the studies, 61% inhibition for 2,4,6-TCP, 58% inhibition for 2,4-DCP and 47% inhibition for 4-CP was observed.

Mikrotoxicity test system developed in our laboratory which works principally based on inactivation of β-galactosidase activity by toxic chlorinated phenolics, was used for toxicity detection. Data obtained from microtoxicity tests have shown that the dechlorination of chlorinated phenolics with laccase has resulted in the loss of toxic potentiality of these chemicals to a substantial extent.

We thought that this study is to be an important contribution to bioremediation science and environmental technology with a new biotechnological approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity, Distribution and Morphological Characterization of Wild Macro Fungi from Gajni Forest

D. R. B. Sonchita, F. M. Aminuzzaman, A. A. Joty, J. F. Tanni, M. N. Islam, M. Rahaman

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 19-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i230084

Survey on macro fungi was made in Gajni forest, Sherpur, Bangladesh which is located in between 24°18' and 25°18' north latitudes and in between 89°53' and 90°91' east longitudes. It is bounded by Meghalaya state of India on the north, Mymensingh and Jamalpur districts on the south with a wide range of ecosystem. The survey was conducted on July to December, 2018 to identify and preserve wood-rot causal macro fungi for future industrial utilization. Morphology of basidiocarp and characteristics of basidiospore were recorded. A total of 20 samples were collected and identified to 12 species belonging 7 families. Dominant species was Ganoderma species. The identified four species were from Ganodermataceae family and these were G. applanatum, G. lucidum, G. tropicum and G. lobetum. Other dominant genus was Russula. Other recorded genera were Hebeloma, Boletus, Phlebopus and Entoloma. Among them the highest frequency (85.72%) was recorded for G. applanatum and lowest frequency (7.14%) was recorded for Phlebopus marginatus. Similarly highest density (20.25%) was recorded for Agaricus sp. followed by G. lucidum (15.85%). The lowest density was (2.14%) was recorded for Phlebopus marginatus. Collected specimens were preserved in Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University Herberium of Macro fungi (SHMF) for further study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Toxicity Potentials of Spent Laptop Battery Wastes on Essential Soil Microbes and Plant Bioindicators

Bright Obidinma Uba, Ebele Linda Okoye, Charles Onuora Chude, Joshua Okwuchukwu Ogamba

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i230085

Aims: The study was undertaken to assess the toxicity potentials of spent laptop battery wastes on essential soil microbes and plant bio-indicators.

Study Design: Five treatments and the controls designs were set up in triplicates and incubated at 25 ± 2°C for 21 days. The five treatments and controls set ups were designated as 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% and CTRL.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Uli Anambra State, Nigeria during May, 2019 - July, 2019.

Methodology: The microbial growth inhibition was analysed using standard method of spread plate technique while growth indices and percentage seedling emergence were adopted for the seed growth inhibition.

Results: The result revealed that fungal population was the most sensitive followed by bacterial population and then actinomycetes population in terms of toxic responses to the spent laptop battery samples soil contamination. The order of toxicity of the spent battery samples on the growth indices and percentage seedling emergence of P. vulgaris and S. bicolor were: Product B-bean (-18.89%) > Product A-sorghum (-32.22%) > Product A-bean (- 38.63%) > Product B- sorghum (- 45.77%) revealing that both P. vulgaris and S. bicolor are very good bio-monitoring models for spent product A and B battery pollution assessment.

Conclusion: Thus, strict and stringent measures on release of these electronic wastes in the environment are recommended.

Open Access Review Article

Anti Inflammatory and Anti Viral Effects of Potassium (K) and Chemical Composition of Moringa

Ignat Ignatov

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i230081

Moringa grows in parts of Africa and Asia and is a flowering plant from herb to tree. There are 13 types of Moringa. It is growing in the Himalayas in northwestern India. In Africa, it grows in Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Ghana, Nigeria and more. For capsules, leaves and roots are used. Oil is used for nuts.

Moringa in the research was from Thailand. The colors of flowers were white and yellow.

Moringa is characterized by high levels of potassium (K). Patients with COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus have a decrease in potassium levels in the body.

In 2017, the author makes a spectral analysis of Moringa oil (Ignatov, 2017). The analysis justifies the application of Moringa for coronaviruses.

The great advantage of Moringa is that potassium and the chemical compounds are in organic form and are well absorbed by the body.