Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of the Influence of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Growth Performance of Tetrapleura tetraptera

U. L. Edem, E. E. Ekerette

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i130072

The continuous destruction of our rainforest has threatened the existence of many useful and multipurpose plant species such as Tetrapleura tetraptera. To revert this situation, efforts must be made towards its sustainable use by encouraging reforestation which entails raising of seedlings for mass propagation of this crop. This study was aimed at comparing the effects of organic (chicken litter) and inorganic (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizers on seedling growth in four accessions of Tetrapleura tetraptera and hence determining fertilizer preference for this forest species. The Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used in a factorial arrangement with four accessions and three fertilizer types in eight replicates. One month after transplanting, the fertilizers (organic and inorganic) were uniformly applied at the rate of 45 kg/hectare according to the experimental design. Data were collected monthly for a period of three months on plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaf length, member of branches, number of leaves, primary and secondary internode length per plant. Data on seedling emergence were also taken. Data collected were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance. Least significant difference (LSD) was used to separate significant means at p = 0.05. Result obtained revealed that the soil was rich in calcium, phosphorus and organic matter but low in nitrogen and potassium which were adequately complemented in mean days to seedling emergence in four accessions studied. Our findings also revealed that the organic (chicken litter) fertilizer did better (P<0.05) in all accessions than inorganic (NPK 15:15:15) fertilizer for all morphological traits studied. The performance of Cross River accession was outstanding as illustrated by the significant interaction obtained in most parameters. With chicken, litter fertilizer, Cross River accession produced the tallest plant (27.38 cm), largest leaf area (1.99 cm2), highest number of branches (20.13), highest number of leaves (66.75), longest stem diameter (0.93 cm), longest leaf length (1.94 cm), lowest primary (0.80) and lowest secondary (0.83) internode length. The use of organic fertilizers is therefore recommended for improved seedling growth of Tetrapleura tetraptera.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Distribution of Macro Fungi in Some Selected Parks and Gardens of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

J. F. Tanni, F. M. Aminuzzaman, M. Ahmed, M. Rahaman

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 23-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i130076

A survey was conducted during June to November, 2017 in five selected parks and gardens of Dhaka city, Bangladesh namely National Botanical Garden, National Zoo, Romna Park, Dhanmondi Lake and Boldha Garden. The investigation was done to analyze the morphology, diversity and distribution of macro fungi A total of 44 macro fungi samples were collected and identified to 32 species under 18 genera and 18 families. The most frequent collected genera were Ganoderma sp., Daedeleopsis sp., Ramariopsis sp., Crepidotus sp. and Daldinia sp. The maximum frequency of identified species was exhibited by Ganoderma lucidum (9.46%), followed by Ganoderma applanatum (8.1%), Volvariella volvacea (5.41%), Agaricus bisporus (5.41%) Daedaleopsis confragosa (4.05%), Trametes versicolor (4.05%) and Ganoderma boninense (4.05%). The maximum density of occurrence among collected samples was exhibited by Ramariopsis kunzei (11.3%), Ganoderma lucidum (9.9%), Crepidotus variabilis (5.3%) and Daedaleopsis confragosa (3.76%). The predominant species found in National Botanical Garden is Ganoderma applanatum, in Ramna Park is Ganoderma lucidum, in Dhanmondi Lake is Ramariopsis kunzei, in Boldha Garden is Ganoderma lucidum and in National zoo is Amanita bisporigera. The collected specimens were deposited to the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University Herbarium of Macro Fungi (SHMF).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pregnancy on Thermoregulation, Blood Constituents, Serum Bio-chemicals and Cortisol Level in (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Rabbit Model

Khalid Abbas Owish Sukar, Abdalla Mohammed Abdelatif, Etayeb Mohammed Alfaki

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 44-61
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i130077

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pregnancy on the physiological responses in rabbit model in early, mid and late gestation periods.

Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed according to the complete randomized design. Fourteen (14) pregnant and non pregnant rabbits, 7 in each group, were used in this study. Pregnancy was ascertained by vaginal swabs taken after copulation by mature fertile male rabbits. Blood and serum constituents' responses were investigated at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of gestation.

Results: The obtained results revealed significant (P 0.05) increase in respiration rate (RR) in mid-gestation and in heart rate (HR) at late gestation. The packed cell volume (PVC), erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and total leukocyte count (TLC) were significantly (P 0.05) reduced in mid and late gestation. The serum levels of total protein decreased and cholesterol increased significantly (P 0.05) in early, mid and late gestation. The plasma osmolality decreased significantly (P 0.05) at mid gestation. Cortisol level increased significantly (P 0.05) during mid and late gestation.

Conclusions: The study concluded that the pregnancy altered HR, hematological, serum parameters and cortisol level in pregnant rabbit model.         

Open Access Original Research Article

SARS COV 2: Complete Review on Global Pandemic (Covid 19)

Praveen Kumar Gupta, B. S. Rithu, Kauser Banu, A. Shruthi, C. Sahana

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 62-69
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i130078

SARS COV 2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2) has created a global health emergency worldwide due to public health crisis and life-threatening situation. According to a recent study it has been reported that the virus was found originated in animal and transmitted to humans through a food chain. First case was reported in Wuhan-china on December 2019, In this review we have enlightened on different aspects of novel coronavirus 2019 and measure to combat the battle against the novel corona virus 2019.

Open Access Review Article

Microbial Diversity: Values and Roles in Ecosystems

Onen, O. I., Aboh, A. A., Mfam, A. N., Akor, M. O., Nweke, C. N., Osuagwu, A. N.

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2020/v9i130075

Microorganisms are described as multicultural microscopic organisms, which are cosmopolitan in nature, (i.e. they are widely distributed in air, water, soil, sea, mountains, hot springs and also in bodies of living plants and animals including the human), possessing a diverse array of metabolism. Microbial diversity includes a large collection of organisms. It includes a range of variability in all kinds of microorganisms like fungi, bacteria and viruses in the natural world. Microorganisms serves as the mainstay of life on Earth. Microorganisms represent the richest treasury or part in chemistry and molecular diversity in nature, establishing the basis for ecological processes such as biogeochemical cycles and food chains, also maintaining essential relationships among themselves and with higher organisms. Microbial diversity exploration has been encouraged by the fact that microbes are vital for life since they perform numerous functions essential for the biosphere. Maintaining multiple ecosystems functions and services, inclusively: nutrient cycling, litter decomposition primary production and climate regulation are among the key roles performed by microbial communities. Microbes not only reshaped the oceans and atmosphere but also gave rise to conditions conducive to multicellular organisms. The diversity of microorganisms is important in the maintenance and conservation of global genetic resources.