Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To Determine antioxidant value and chemical groups in selected medicinal plants used for conditions associated with Herpes simplex and Herpes zoster infections in Mukhwa sub-location, Kakamega County, Kenya.
Study Design: A qualitative ethnobotanical survey for plant identification and chemical analysis for antioxidant assay and chemical group detection.
Place and Duration of Study: Plant samples were collected in Mukhwa sub-location in September 2014. Sample processing and chemical group detection was carried out at the Center of Traditional Medicine and Drug Research of Kenya Medical Research Institute. Antioxidant assay was carried out at the Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences of the Kenya Medical Training College.
Methodology: All 12 Community Health Workers, comprising 7 females and 5 males, were interviewed for identification of plant species. Antioxidant assay was carried out using the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction assay and detection of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkanoids, saponins and phenols carried out using physicho-chemical methods.
Results: Caesalpinia decapetala, Garcinia buchananii and Entada abyssinica, were the most potent sources of antioxidant with the concentration giving 50% DPPH reduction (RSa50) of 50, 20 and 10 µg/ml, respectively. The most abundant chemical groups were; alkaloids in Schkuhria pinnata, terpenoids in E. abyssinica, flavonoids in G. buchananii, the latter also contained the highest amount of phenols.
Conclusion: The findings of antioxidant and chemical groups in selected medicinal plants support their use for HIV conditions.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background/Objective: Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia are commonly used in Benin in the treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of ethanolic extracts of these plants.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 wistar rats placed in 6 work lots. A positive control lot having received diclofenac and a negative control lot having received physiological water were used. The ethanolic extract of the plants was used at a dose of 200 mg / kg bw. The model of inflammatory edema of the rat paw induced by 2% formalin was used. Analgesic activity was assessed by the pain method induced by 3% acetic acid and the tail immersion method with wistar rats. The antipyretic effect was evaluated on pyrexia induced by brewer's yeast at 20% with wistar rats.
Results: After injection of formalin to animals, inflammatory reaction was almost immediate with appearance of classic signs of acute local inflammation (Redness, pain, heat and edema) at the five experimental groups. This inflammatory reaction occurs in two phases. The first phase occurs between 0 and 2 hours after injection of phlogogenic agent and the second phase, initiated after two hours extending to the fifth hour and even beyond. Administration of these extracts prevents edema inflammatory and inhibition percentages of edema vary between 23.67% and 86.76% for the three extracts. These extracts have similar anti-inflammatory activity (p> 0.05) to that of diclofenac at 50 mg/kg. Analgesic activity show that these extracts inhibit very significantly (p<0.001) chemical pain induced by acetic acid and the highest inhibition percentage is 60.34% (Citrus aurantifolia). This percentage is like to that of acetylsalicylic acid (67.35%) administered at the same dose. Likewise, these extracts attenuate significantly (p <0.05) thermal pain induced by tail immersion of each rat in hot water at 50°C. Indeed, these extracts, reduces very significantly (p <0.001) pyrexia induced by 20% beer yeast suspension in rats and they have similar effect (p> 0.05) to that of acetylsalicylic acid at the fourth hour.
Conclusion: These results show that the plants studied have the pharmacological properties evaluated. These results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine.
Open Access Original Research Article
To assess nephroprotective potency of methanolic extract of C. owariensis on renal histomorphology of Wistar rats during exposure to nephropathic activity of CCl4.
Twenty eight (28) albino Wistar rats divided into four groups which include normal control group administered with vehicles -distilled water (1 ml/kg b.w.) and olive oil (3 ml/kg b.w.), experimental control group administered with CCl4 (3 ml/kg b.w.) twice a week, first treatment group administered with CCl4 (3 ml/kg b.w.) twice a week + methanolic extract of C. owariensis (100 mg/kg b.w.) daily and second treatment group administered with CCl4 (3 ml/kg b.w.) twice a week + methanolic extract of C. owariensis (300 mg/kg b.w.) daily for twenty eight (28) days. Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of C. owariensis was carried out using GC-MS. The body weight of study animals was measure at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of study. Then, kidney tissue of study animals was collected, weighed and processed for histopathological study. Tissue sections were stained using H & E, examined under microscope, photomicrographs were generated and observable histopathological changes were quantified using image-J software.
Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of C. owariensis showed abundance of phenolic compounds which may in turn confer antioxidant property on the extract. Results of this study also showed that treatment with extract helped to reduce body and tissue weight loss that follows exposure to CCl4. Also, treatment with the extract helped to reduce significantly (p < 0.05) renal histopathological changes following exposure to CCl4.
The methanolic extract of C. owariensis contains abundant phenolic compounds which confer antioxidant property that in turn mediate the nephroprotective potency of the extract against nephropathic effect of CCl4.
Open Access Review Article
Bats have great economic and environmental importance, including nocturnal insect control, pollination, seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Bats, however, like insects and birds are suffering a precipitous global decline due to anthropogenic causes. Deliberate air pollution in the form of undisclosed tropospheric aerosol geoengineering (TAG) has extremely damaging effects throughout the biosphere. Forensic scientific evidence implicates coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste product of coal-burning, as the main constituent of the jet-sprayed particulate trails seen around the world. Coal fly ash is a primary source of the ultrafine and nano-sized particulate fraction of air pollution that adversely impacts human and environmental health. Recently, countless exogenous magnetic pollution particles from combustion sources were found in human brains and heart tissue. Previous studies reveal that aerosolized CFA is a significant factor in the catastrophic global decline of birds and insects. Insects can accumulate aerosolized CFA on their body surfaces and/or ingest CFA particulates that insectivorous bats then consume. Bats are excellent mammalian bioindicators of environmental contaminants and it is known that their tissue contains high levels of metals and persistent organic pollutants. From a review of the literature, we show that the pollutant element ratios in bat tissue and bat guano are consistent with an origin in CFA-type air pollution. These findings suggest that CFA, including its use in covert climate engineering operations, is an unacknowledged factor in the morbidity and mortality of bats. Bats, therefore, are an important "canary in the coal mine" pointing to the urgency of halting covert climate engineering and greatly reducing ultrafine particulate air pollution.