Open Access Short Research Article
Aerobiology is a multidisciplinary science dealing with biological particles in the atmosphere generated by natural activities during flowering season. Airborne pollen is now the main studied biological structure which is used as a reliable tool to study plant phenology, plant distribution changes and prediction of crop production. The main aims of this work is to determine the distribution of the different spring flowering species from the North to the South of Tunisia and to establish the pollen spectrum of three regions Mornag (North), Menzel M’hiri (Centre) and Chaal (South) in 2017.
Airborne pollen data were collected using three volumetric Hirst-type spore traps placed in Mornag (36°39N; 10°16E), Menzel M’hiri (35°38N; 10°41E) and Chaal (34°34N; 10°19E) during olive flowering season. The highest pollen index was recorded in the north (Mornag, 6487.1) corresponding mainly to 18 different pollen types emitted by anemophilous species with an important presence of Cupressus pollen type having the highest contribution. Lower pollen amounts were recorded in Menzel M’hiri (5983.8) and Chaal (925.3). Olea eurpoeae was the most presented pollen type in these regions. However comparing the different study sites we can note a large distribution of some taxa from north to the south. The main common taxa were Olea europaea, Cupressaceae, Poaceae and Amaranhaceae. Their atmospheric concentrations varied also between the regions. Individual pollen index showed a sharp heterogeneity between the taxa in the same region in one hand and between the study sites in the other hand, thus a statistical analysis was performed to define the main group of taxa according to their individual pollen index. Flowering phenology of the main common taxa was also established.
Open Access Minireview Article
During orthodontic treatment, application of forces to move the teeth within the dento-alveolar complex is associated with structural and biological tissues changes. One of the main changes is hypoxia which is due to the compression of blood vessels resulting in insufficient oxygenation of the tissues. On orthodontic loading, hypoxia causes irreversible cell cycle arrest (or so called cellular senescence) and apoptosis of the tissue cells around the teeth especially on the compression zone. Excessive hypoxia, in turn leads to a massive, an inevitable and detrimental destruction of tissues supporting the tooth such as remarkable root resorption. This mini-review is highlighting the effect of orthodontic force in inducing a local hypoxic environment and its consequences in causing cells death of the periodontal cells.
Open Access Original Research Article
Variation in body weight, lipid profile and selected reproduction hormones in rats given Psidium guajava leaf samples from crude oil polluted and non-crude oil polluted areas was evaluated. Thirty-six albino rats of Wistar strain weighing between 90-120 g were divided into three major groups of I-III, with each group having two subgroups designated “a” and “b”. Each of the subgroup housed six rats and they were given different concentrations of the compounded feed of the leaf samples. Rat groups placed on P. guajava leaf sample from non-crude oil polluted area had significantly (p<0.05) increased weight when compared to rat groups placed on P. guajava leaf sample from crude oil polluted area. Triglyceride, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increased significantly (p<0.05) in rat groups placed on P. guajava leaf sample from crude oil polluted area against rat groups placed on P. guajava leaf sample from non-crude oil polluted area. Atherogenic indices of rat groups placed on P. guajava leaf sample from crude oil polluted area showed increased risk to cardiovascular diseases when compared to rat groups placed on P. guajava leaf sample from non-crude oil polluted area. The evaluated reproductive hormones increased significantly (p<0.05) in rats placed on P. guajava leaf sample from crude oil polluted area against those groups placed on P. guajava leaf sample from non-crude oil polluted area. The constituents of P. guajava leaf sample from crude oil polluted area could be behind the observed risk while the increase in hormones could be linked to increased cholesterol in rats groups placed on the leaf sample from crude oil polluted area. There is to sensitise those in the act of herbalism to be aware of where they harvest the plants they use as raw materials. This study has shown the variation in body weight, lipid profile and selected reproduction hormones in rats given P. guajava leaves from crude oil polluted and non-crude oil polluted areas.
Open Access Original Research Article
In Bangladesh, poultry disease diagnosis almost entirely depends upon the post mortem examination. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacterial diseases and liver lesions in chickens based on gross and microscopic lesions. The study was conducted to 377 liver samples collected from chickens from July to December 2017 in the Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. During the collection of samples, clinical signs and gross changes were recorded very carefully. Histomorphological changes were investigated under a light microscope and the lesions were characterized. In this study, the overall prevalence of bacterial diseases was recorded as 14.05% whereas layer chickens (9.54%) and broiler chickens (4.50%). During the study, the prevalence of Salmonellosis was found 8.22% whereas 11.66% in layer chickens and 3.25% in broiler chickens. On the other hand, the prevalence of Colibacillosis was identified 5.83% in chickens in which 3.18% were broiler chickens and 2.65% were layer chickens. In the case of Salmonellosis, grossly livers were friable, congested, enlarged, bronze discoloration with white focal necrosis, egg follicles were congested and hemorrhagic with stalk formation; microscopically livers formed multifocal nodules with coagulation necrosis. Birds with Colibacillosis grossly showed fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity of chicks, dark-colored swollen liver and spleen, and perihepatitis. The fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome showed clotted blood on the liver, congested, enlarged and friable liver, paleness of the body and excess abdominal fat. From the present study, it was evident that considerable numbers of liver lesions were observed in chicken and a systematic study of liver lesions is helpful in making a diagnosis of various poultry diseases.
Open Access Original Research Article
Oligosaccharins: oligogalacturonic, and chitooligosaccharides are known as molecular signals to induce and regulate various genes in plants. This study was conducted to deternine the effects of chitooligosaccharide on bud formula and growth of Piper nigrum in both in vitro and ex vitro. The results showed that sterilize Piper nigrum shoots with 30% sodium hypochlorite at 10 min was the most suitable condition; appropriate culture media for bud formulation was Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented 30 g/L saccharose, 7,5 g/L agar, 3 mg/L N6 – benzyl adenine (BA), culture media for growth of plantlet shoot was MS media supplemented 30 g/L sacharose, 7,5 g/L agar, 1 g/L NAA, 2 mg/L IBA and 45 ppm chitooligosaccharide. Supplementation of chitooligosaccharide at concentration of 45 ppm was optimal for the growth of Piper nigrum plantlets both in vitro and ex vitro. Present study indicated that chitooligosaccharide strongly promote the growth of Piper nigrum and recommend concentration for both in vitro and ex vitro is 45 ppm.