Open Access Original Research Article

High Frequency and Activity of Glossina spp., Vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis along a Secondary Forest-Man Made Transect in Makokou (North East-Gabon)

Zinga-Koumba Christophe Roland, Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Affiri Odzame Joseph-Marie, Mounioko Franck, Koumba Armel Aubin, Rodrigue Mintsa Nguema, Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie, M’batchi Bertrand, Jacques Francois Mavoungou

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i230058

The abundance, species diversity and diurnal activity rhythm of hematophagous glossineswere evaluated by trapping using 15 Vavoua traps, during the rainy season (25th Sept-5th Oct to 21st Oct-9th Nov 2018), in two habitats: secondary forest and Anthropised milieu, in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-IRET Makokou in Gabon. In total, 489 glossines were caught  with 245 collected from Village-Town site and regrouped under 4 species [G.p.palpalis (32.17%), G. frezili (36.23%), G. nashi (29.57%) and G. f. fuscipes (2.03%)] while 244 were collected from forest and regrouped under 3 species [G.p.palpalis (61.48%), G. nashi (28.69%) and G. frezili (0.84%)]. The abundance of glossines was higher in the Village-Town milieu (2.88 g/t/d) as compared to the forest (2.34 g/t/d) with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Glossines showed a unimodal diurnal activity rhythm with peak between 10h-12h in the two milieu and was dominated by females.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineral Status and Lupine Yield Responses to Ascorbic Acid Spraying and Irrigation by Diluted Sea Water

M. M. Hussein, A. Abd El-Khader, S. Y. El-Faham

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i230059

A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre at Dokki, Cairo Egypt during 2010 -2011 winter seasons to evaluate the effect of different salt stress degrees on the growth and yield characters. The salinity treatments were: Irrigation by three concentrations of diluted seawater (2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm) more than the control treatment (irrigated by tap water 250 ppm) and spraying ascorbic acid (AsA) with two concentrations (100, and 200 ppm). Salinity depressed the pods, straw, straw+ pods and seeds weight relative to the control plants but the depression of these traits showed its maximum values when plants subjected to the higher level of salinity (6000 ppm) markedly more than that with the other two levels of salinity. Slight differences in the mentioned characters of plants irrigated by solution contained 2000 or 4000 ppm. Gradual depressions in pods/straw, seeds/pods and seeds/straw ratios were detected with the increase in salt concentration in water of irrigation. Ascorbic acid application led to increase the pod, straw, total and seeds yields. The high increment in pods weight and seeds to straw ratio wereshown by using 100 ppm ascorbic acid but the increment in straw, totalseeds weight and seeds/pods and pods/straw ratios.Furthermore, the absorption rate of N, K, P, Ca, and Mg ions from the growth medium significantly inhibited as a result of treatment with diluted sea water. Meanwhile, significant increases in the uptake of these ions were obtained in response to ascorbic acid application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilzer on the Early Growth Response of Afzelia africana

Adeboyin Funmi Aderounmu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i230060

An experiment was conducted in the nursery of Department of Forestry Technology at the Federal College of Forestry Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on early growth response of Afzelia africana. Seedlings were collected from Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Oyo State and were transplanted into 2kg perforated polythene pots. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments replicated three times. The treatments were: 20 t ha-1  water hyacinth compost (T1), 20 t ha-1  water hyacinth + poultry manure compost (T2), 20 t ha-1  poultry manure (T3) and 50 kg ha-1 NPK 20:10:10 (T4) and T5 - control (no fertilizer application). The compost was applied two (2) weeks before planting, while NPK 20:10:10 was applied two 2 weeks after planting. The experiment was monitored for eight (8) weeks after transplanting (WAT), while growth parameters were measured. The results of the study showed that application of fertilizers gave significant (p=0.05) increase in plant height (cm), stem diameter (mm), leaf production, and leaf area (cm2) of A. africana. Plant height ranged from 41.43 cm in the control to 47.96 cm in the pots where 20t ha-1 water hyacinth compost was applied. Stem diameter also increased across treatments, while leaf production ranged from 9 in the control treatment to 14 in the pots with 20t ha-1 poultry manure. These results suggested that the incorporation of organic and inorganic fertilizers increased productivity of A. africana. However, application of 20 t ha-1 water hyacinth compost is recommended because it is available, affordable and environmentally friendly for the production of A. africana especially in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Field Evaluation of Some Selected Chemicals against Bacterial Blight in Cotton

Salma Sarker, N. Sultana, F. M. Aminuzzaman

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i230061

The aim of this study is to evaluate the comparative efficacy of some selected chemicals and antibiotic in controlling bacterial blight of cotton variety CB-9 in vivo. A field experiment was carried out at the Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka,  Bangladesh to study efficacy of selected chemicals against bacterial blight of cotton with ten treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD).Cotton plant was affected by bacterial blight at all stages of its development. The disease spread from the cotyledons to the leaves followed by the main stems, branches and bolls. Field evaluation of selected chemicals revealed that Streptomycin Sulphate was highly effective against bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum. The highest germination (92%) was found in the treatment where cotton seed was treated with Streptomycin Sulphate at 0.15% which was followed by seed treatment with Streptomycin Sulphate at 0.15% + Foliar spray with Streptomycin Sulphate at 150 ppm. The lowest disease severity in terms of PDI (22.66%) was found in Seed treatment with Streptomycin Sulphate at 0.15% + Foliar spray with Streptomycin Sulphate at 150 ppm subsequently after three foliar sprays at 105 DAS. Seed treatment with Streptomycin Sulphate at 0.15% + Foliar spray with Streptomycin Sulphate at 150 ppm reduced the disease severity by 44.46% over control and increased the yield of seed cotton 34.58% over control. Streptomycin Sulphate showed higher affectivity against bacterial blight of cotton compared with other tested fungicides.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Aerosolized Coal Fly Ash in the Global Plankton Imbalance: Case of Florida's Toxic Algae Crisis

Mark Whiteside, J. Marvin Herndon

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i230056

Red tide is the term used in Florida (USA) and elsewhere to describe a type of marine harmful algal bloom (HAB) that grows out of control and produces neurotoxins that adversely affect humans, birds, fish, shellfish, and marine mammals. HABs are becoming more abundant, extensive, and closer to shore, and longer in duration than any time in recorded history. Our objective is to review the effects the multifold components of aerosolized coal fly ash as they relate to the increasing occurrences of HABs. Aerosolized coal fly ash (CFA) pollutants from non-sequestered coal-fired power plant emissions and from undisclosed, although “hidden in plain sight,” tropospheric particulate geoengineering operations are inflicting irreparable damage to the world’s surface water-bodies and causing great harm to human health (including lung cancer, respiratory and neurodegenerative diseases) and environmental health (including major die-offs of insects, birds and trees). Florida’s ever-growing toxic nightmare of red tides and blue-green algae is a microcosm of similar activity globally. Atmospheric deposition of aerosol particulates, most importantly bioavailable iron, has drastically shifted the global plankton community balance in the direction of harmful algae and cyanobacterial blooms in fresh and salt water. Proposed geoengineering schemes of iron fertilization of the ocean would only make a bad situation unimaginably worse. Based on the evidence presented here, the global spread of harmful algae blooms will only be contained by rapidly reducing particulate air pollution both by implementation of universal industrial particulate-trapping and by the immediate halting of jet-sprayed particulate aerosols. Corrective actions depend not only on international cooperation, but on ending the deadly code of silence throughout government, academe, and media on the subject of ongoing tropospheric aerosol geoengineering. Long-standing weather control, climate intervention, and geoengineering operations have come to threaten not only all humans but the entire web of life on Earth.