Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Serum α-tocopherol and Anemia among Infertile Patients Attending Specialists Hospital, Sokoto

F. U. Bunza, A. S. Mainasara, I. Z. Wasagu, I. Y. Maryam

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i130051

Infertility is the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy over an average period of one year despite adequate, regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. Avitaminosis E has been implicated in the development of infertility and hemolytic anemia in animals. There is, however, little evidence that man is ever scanty in vitamin E. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum α-tocopherol levels and anemia among infertile patients attending Specialists Hospital, Sokoto. A total of fifty (50) infertile patients and fifty (50) apparently healthy fertile married as control were recruited for this study. The blood samples collected were analyzed for α-tocopherol using Hashim and Schuttringer (1996) method, and PCV using hematocrit reader. The data obtained were analyzed using the Student's T-independence test. The result shows that the level of serum α-tocopherol was significantly lower (p<0.05) in infertile patients (0.65±0.04) compared to controls (1.38±0.02). The result, however, shows no statistically significant difference of PCV and BMI (37.58±0.4 and 21.14±0.34 respectively) in infertile patients when compared to the controls (38.61±0.4 and 22.05±2.64 respectively). A reduced serum α-tocopherol level among infertile patients was observed in this study. The α-tocopherol has been described to be a potent antisterility factor on account of the development of the sterility in its absence. We, therefore, commend the incorporation of α-tocopherol in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility in human.

Open Access Original Research Article

Subterranean Termites of a University Environment in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

C. Wekhe, A. P. Ugbomeh, N. Ebere, D. D. S. Bawo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i130052

Termites are diverse, ubiquitous and abundant in tropical ecosystems and are major examples of soil-dwelling ecosystem service providers that influence the ecosystem functioning by physically altering their biotic and abiotic surroundings. With increasing development in the environment, there is a gradual loss of their habitat. This study was carried out to determine the subterranean termite species in Rivers State University campus and relate the species and prevalence to their soil types. The study area was divided into 10 zones and from each zone 3 stations were selected randomly for sampling. Samples were collected in January and February 2018. Samples were taken from available mounds and soil in each station and termites were sorted, identified and counted. The temperature, organic content, pH, soil particle analysis and moisture content were determined for the soil samples. Five termite species from two families were identified;Termitidae: Amitermes spp1, Amitermes spp2, and Globitermes spp; Macrotermitidae: Macrotermes gilvusand another Macrotermes spp. The Amitermes spp was the most abundant as it was found in all 10 zones, followed by Macrotermes spp and then the Globitermes spp being the least abundant. Termite abundance, moisture content and soil type were significantly different in the 10 zones (p < 0.05). Total Organic Content was negatively correlated with Macrotermes spp. The Amitermes were more abundant in residential areas as they are wood eating termites suggesting that most destructive aspect of termite behaviour on residential areas may be perpetuated by the Amitermes species. The Macrotermes spp were found only in cultivated areas and from soil with higher percentage of clay, and they are basically soil feeders. M. gilvus and Macrotermes spp were seen in reddish mounds with fresh soil at the peak (showing termite activity) giving it a cone shape whereas the mound Globitermes spp was black, no fresh soil at the peak and had a circular shape. Amitermes was found in abandoned reddish Macrotermes mounds in residential areas. This study has provided some information on the termites in the University community as their habitat is gradually being destroyed with new buildings resulting in biodiversity loss. Moisture and TOC appeared to affect abundance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Based Preservatives on Shelf Life and Quality of Mango Fruits (Mangifera indica) During Storage

Augustin Schinzoumka Passannet, Jean Aghofack-Nguemezi, Donatien Gatsing

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i130053

Mango is one of the main fruits grown in Chad. However, it is prone to high post-harvest losses due to lack of adequate distribution networks, appropriate harvesting and conservation methods. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of coatings based on extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Spirulina platensis (spirulina) on their conservation. Shelf life, weight loss, firmness, pH and total soluble solids content of mangoes were evaluated. The coated mangoes had excellent brillance compared to control mangoes. The coatings based on the extracts of A. sativum, S. platensis and Z. officinale increased respectively the means shelf life of mangoes to 18, 19 and 24 days. Weight losses were 21% for control mangoes while they were 13% for mangoes coated using mixture containing extracts of A. sativum and S. platensis and 11% for mangoes coated with Z. officinale. Coatings based on extracts of Z. officinale and S. platensis had statistically comparable effects on the firmness of mangoes but significantly higher than those of A. sativum extracts and controls after the 10th day. pH values and total soluble solids content (TSSC) values of control mangoes were significantly higher than those of coated mangoes. On day 10 after treatment, chlorophylls were absent from the peel of control mangoes whereas they were still present in the peel of coated mangoes. The mangoes coated with extract of Z. officinale reached a shelf life of 24 days. This shelf life was significantly higher than that of mangoes coated with other types of extracts and control mangoes. The coating with Z. officinale extract slowed considerably the ripening of mangoes. It can be recommended for conservation of mangoes in fresh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Allelopathic Potential of Artemisia herba-alba on Germination and Seedling Growth of Raphanus sativus and Trigonella foenum-graecum

Hamida M. E. Hamad

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i130054

The allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba at different concentrations (20, 40, 80%) were evaluated on germination and seedling growth of Raphanus sativus (Radish) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) after 7 days "in vitro". Artemisia had strong allelopathic effects, it prevented the germination and seedling growth of Radish seeds, at highest concentrations (80%). Results obtained showed significant inhibition in germination percentage (GP), plumule length (PL) and radicle length (RL) of both Radish and Fenugreek seeds, and the degree of inhibition was concentration dependent. At 20 and 40% the germination percentage of Radish seed was reduced to (56.67%) and to (40%), while the germination of Fenugreek seeds was reduced to (80%) and to (63.33%) respectively. This inhibition was markedly in obvious Radish than in Fenugreek, indicating that is Raphanus sativus more sensitive, to the allelophahtic effect of the different concentrations of the aqueous extract of the A. herba alba plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fatty Acid Compositions of Mixed Microalgae from Tilapia Fish Ponds

Norhafizah Osman, Hishamuddin Omar

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2019/v8i130055

Microalgae has been getting broad attention of researchers and investors lately, especially when discussing on healthy food and energy sources for the future. In this study, twelve samples of mixed microalgae from outdoor ponds were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions. The potential of microalgae to solve variety of world’s problems was not realized because of bottleneck in microalgal supplies at reasonable cost. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine fatty acid profiles of mixed microalgae from tilapia fish ponds. The study was conducted in Tapak Ternakan Ikan, Taman Pertanian Universiti and Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Mixed microalgae were extracted for their lipids with methanol: chloroform mixture and after transesterification, the fatty acid methyl ester were analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector. Results showed that saturated was the major constituent fatty acids. The average percentages of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids obtained were 45.62 ± 1.37%, 20.05 ± 1.14%, and 34.33 ± 3.17% respectively. The most dominant fatty acid profiles were C18:3n3 (α-linolenic acid) and C16:0 (palmitic acid), with the overall percentages of 19.97% and 19.40% respectively. The fatty acid profiles of mixed microalgae was good with a decent balance of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.