Open Access Short Research Article

Occurrence of Bluntnose Sixgill Shark Hexanchus griseus (Bonnaterre, 1788) in Yeşilovacık Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean

Deniz Ayas, Deniz Ergüden, Nuray Çiftçi, Mısra Bakan

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2018/v7i230050

Aims: In this study, an individual of H. griseus was caught from the Mersin Bay and this ichthyologic note presents a new female record of H. griseus for Mersin Bay, Mediterranean coast of Turkey. This study aims to contribute to the chronological records of the species in the Mediterranean Sea.

Place and Duration of Study: Yeşilovacık bay is a small bay in the west of Mersin Bay. Yeşilovacık bay which lies at approximately 36°07’n latitude, 33°37’e, longitude and about 143 km Western of in Mersin province, Turkey. Sample: On 19 March 2018 blunthose sixgill shark specimen was measured and then deposited in the Museum of the Systematic, Faculty of Fisheries, University of Mersin.

Methodology: A female specimen of H. griseus with a total length (TL) of 350 cm (400 kg) was captured by a commercial trawl at a depth around of 280 m of the Yeşilovacık Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean Sea), Turkey. Total length was measured to the nearest 1 mm and the weight of the specimen was determined to the nearest kilogram.

Results: Measurements of the specimen are presented and compared with the previous records of H. griseus in the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey (Iskenderun Bay), which are given in Table. The identification was carried out according to the previous report.

Conclusion: To date specific conservation measures are not known for this species for the Northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Thus, the effect of coastal fishery for sharks should be regularly monitored and protection measures should be taken in this region in order for this shark species to continue their conservation for the next generation.

Open Access Short communication

Determination of Antibacterial and DNA Damage Inhibitory Activities of Propolis Extract from Izmir of Turkey

Ceren Baskan, Dudu Duygu Kiliç, Belgin Siriken

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2018/v7i230046

Propolis has a broad spectrum of therapeutic potential such as antimicrobial and anticancer activities and, is popular worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate antibacterial and DNA damage inhibitory activities of propolis. The propolis samples were collected in Izmir of Turkey and were extracted by using ethanol and acetone solvents. The antibacterial effect of these propolis extracts was determined by using microdilution methods against three Gram positive-bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25953, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 29213), and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076). The ability to repair the plasmid DNA breaks created by hydroxyl radicals was also determine using pBR322 plasmid DNA. As a result; antibacterial activity was detected in ethanolic extract better than acetone extract. Ethanol extract was also found very effective against Gram-positive bacteria especially Bacillus cereus (≤6.25 mg/mL). Among the Gram-negative bacteria, the most susceptible bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.5 mg/mL). Moreover, ethanol and acetone extracts of propolis had repair effects on plasmid DNA in H2O2 condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, First Molecular Identification and Characterization of Theileria lestoquardi in Sheep in Alhuda National Sheep Research Station, Al Gezira State, Sudan

H. D. M. Ahmed, A. M. Ahmed, D. A. Salih, S. K. Hasan, M. M. Masri, H. N. Altayb, M. A. M. Khaeir, M. O. Hussein, A. M. El Hussein

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/45972

Aims: The present study investigated the presence of T. lestoquardi in Alhuda National Sheep Research Station using three diagnostic techniques, identified and characterized the parasite.

Methodology: Forty-five animals from three Sudanese sheep ecotypes were selected randomly during September 2013. Blood and sera samples were examined by microscopy, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR product was sequenced to confirm the identity of the parasite.

Results: Microscopic examination (ME) revealed the presence of Theileria spp. piroplasms in 31 animals out of 45 (68.9%).Sixteen sera samples out of the 45 were tested for antibodies against T. lestoquardi, fourteen of these (87.5%) were found positive by IFAT. PCR targeting Theileria lestoquardi merozoite/piroplasm surface antigen (Tlms) was positive in 4/45 (8.9%). Prevalence of the disease was significantly higher (P<.05) in females and in >1 year age group by ME. Sequence analysis confirmed the species identity when compared with reference sequences retrieved from GenBank Database and indicated 99% homology. Multiple sequence alignment of Alhuda strain with other T. lestoquardi sequences obtained from Sudan and Iran revealed five silent base pair substitutions. Phylogenetic tree showed clustering of Alhuda strain (accession no. KY965145) with other T. lestoquardi sequences in one distinct clade.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on molecular identification and characterization of T. lestoquardi from Al Gezira State, Sudan. The disease could adversely affect the animal population in the state therefore epidemiological surveys are required to build up data necessary for designing efficient control programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of the Reproductive Indices and Gonadal Development of Clarias gariepinus Fed Chicken Offal and Shrimp Based Diets

Raymond Odey Ajang, Akaninyene Paul Joseph, Ettah Akpang Ivon, Elvis Monfung Ayim

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2018/v7i230047

The study on the reproductive indices and gonadal development of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed shrimp based diet (SBD), chicken offal based diet (COBD) and coppens (commercial diet) was carried-out over a 22 weeks period in concrete tanks measuring 3.5 x 1.7 x 1.5 m3          (8.9 m3). Forty juveniles with average length of 9.15 ± 0.17 cm and weight of 20.00 ± 4.53 g were stored per group in triplicate, resulting in 360 juveniles in total. Fish were fed daily at 3% of their body weight through-out the duration of the experiment. The nutrient composition of the 3 nutrients differed significantly at p<0.05. The dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and ammonia levels in the culture water with fish fed the 3 diets were within the required level for normal fish growth through-out the experiment. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of the male C. gariepinus fed diet A (Coppens feed), diet B (SBD) and diet C (COBD) were 0.35 ± 0.03%, 0.41 ± 0.04% and 0.36 ± 0.02% respectively. Female C. gariepinus fed diet A, diet B and diet C had a mean GSI of 1.17 ± 0.26%, 0.88 ± 0.27% and 0.77 ± 0.06% respectively. The male gonad weight and GSI varied significantly between the treatment group fed coppens, shrimp based diet and chicken offal based diet (p<0.05), while female gonad weight and GSI did not vary significantly between treatment groups (p>0.05). The hepatosomatic index (HSI) of the male C. gariepinus fed diet A, diet B and diet C were 1.36 ± 0.07%, 1.18 ± 0.07% and 1.21 ± 0.06% respectively. Female C. gariepinus fed diet A, diet B and diet C had a mean HSI of 1.27 ± 0.09%, 1.20 ± 0.06% and 4.27 ± 0.38% respectively. The male and female HSI varied insignificantly between the treatment group at p>0.05. Fecundity was highest (3200 ± 717.90 eggs) in fish fed diet A, followed by fish fed diet B (2392 ± 749 eggs) and least in fish fed diet C (1973 ± 184 eggs). The mean fecundity varied significantly between the fish fed the 3 experimental diet at p<0.05. Normal arrangement of the oocytes, liver and testis was observed in fish fed COBD and SBD, just as in the case of the group fed coppens. Though coppens feed yielded better fecundity, the use of COBD and SBD is recommended for fish farmers in Nigeria. More researches should be carried out on using varying levels of chicken offals and shrimps in fish feed formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Herbicide Glyphosate Hijack® on the Blood Parameters of the Freshwater Fish, Catla catla (HAM)

F. Jerald Felix, Saradhamani ., F. Charles Maria Prabhu, Mahalakshmi .

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajob/2018/v7i230049

The present study was carried out to study of the haematology of the freshwater fish, Catla catla were exposed to herbicide glyphosate hijack® for 10, 20 and 30 days in laboratory condition. Several haematological changes such as RBC, WBC, HB, HCT, Blood Glucose, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Total Protein were observed in fish blood would serve as a useful purpose in evaluating the toxic effects of herbicide glyphosate hijack® (41%). All the values were significantly decreased from control. The maximum decreased level of activities in all these blood values was at 30 days. It has been concluded that herbicide glyphosate hijack ® (41%) at sub-lethal concentration may alter the RBC, WBC, HB, HCT, total glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein in blood in all the exposure periods.