Open Access Short Research Article

Surveillance of Protozoan Infestation in Gill and Skin of Channa punctatus Collected from Local Market of Kolkata

Suman Mukherjee, Rituporna Dasgupta

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/41233

Aims: The present study is aimed at examining the protozoan parasitic population on the gill and skin of fresh water murrel with detailed histopathological study along with measurement of index of infection of parasite infected fish.

Study Design: Fish samples were collected from local market of Kolkata and examined for parasitological and histopathological study in controlled laboratory condition.

Place and Duration of Study: Post Graduate Department of Zoology for a time period of six months.

Methodology: Channa punctatus (size 16-20 cm, weighing 15-17 gm) were collected from local market of Kolkata. Skin and gill filaments were analysed in controlled laboratory condition for examining the presence of protozoan parasites along with the routine histopathological study. Photo-documentation was carried out under microscope fitted with a digital camera.

Results: The freshwater fish were found to be infected with protozoan species with marked lesions in skin and gill.

Conclusion: In this experimental analysis, protozoan species were identified in the skin and gill of Channa punctatus with the highest index of infection during the time span of September and October.  The study is indicative of the harmful influence of parasite on fish health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Activity of Extracts Isolated from Parmelia Lichen against Influenza A Virus (H1N1)

Tran Van Cuong, Duwoon Kim

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/39100

Aims: In the present study, we aim to investigate the antiviral effect against influenza A (H1N1) virus of extracts of Parmelia lichen using the MDCK cell line.

Methodology: Parmelia lichens species were collected and extracted using acetone and methanol solvents, then chemically analyzed by HPLC. The antioxidant of the lichen extracts was measured using the DPPH method, meanwhile, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity were tested using the CCK-8 method. The cytopathic effect and apoptosis of infected-cells were observed under microscopy and using Muse Annexin V and Dead Cell Kit stains in the Muse Cell Analyzer. Finally, to confirm the antiviral effects of lichen against influenza A virus, the relative expression level of viral mRNA PA-gene in MDCK cells was measured using the qRT-PCR method.

Results: Based on the in vitro assays, we found that methanolic extract of Parmelia lichen shows extremely high activity against IAV, which is a significantly higher cell viability (more than 40%); however, a relatively low apoptosis and cell death compared to positive IAV-infected cells. Furthermore, the methanolic lichen extracts showed a significant reduction (by 1.9 log-fold) of influenza A viral replication with concentration of 100 μg/mL.

Conclusion: Our results show that methanolic extracts of natural Parmelia lichen highly inhibited influenza A virus replication in vitro assays. This knowledge has, in turn, allowed the researchers to further explore the specific molecules from natural lichens for pharmaceutical biomaterials of a new anti-influenza therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Cellulase and Macerating Enzyme Activity and Effect of Catechin on Cellulose

Karishma Rajbhar, Himanshu Dawda

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/41229

Aims: To study the activity of cellulase and macerating enzyme and effect of catechin on cellulose.

The cell walls of all higher plants primarily contain cellulose. In cellulose, the polysaccharides have linkages like β-1,4-linked homopolymer of glucose. Using sodium acetate buffer (0.1 M) optimum activity of cellulase and macerating enzyme activity was studied by DNSA method. The activity of the enzyme was also studied on dried tea leaf particles. Cellulases and macerating enzyme hydrolyse cellulose into glucose and other active ingredients like dextrose and fructose, thus improving the extraction rate by increasing the permeability of plant cell walls. The effect of catechin presence in the reaction mixture was studied as its inhibition is well documented. It was demonstrated that catechin took part in the process either by inhibiting or facilitating the reaction. The detailed mechanism is discussed in the article.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of C677T Polymorphism of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene and It’s Susceptibility in Coronary Artery Disease

Javeed Ahmad Tantray, K. Pratap Reddy, Shiva Kumar Yerra, Kaiser Jamil

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/39936

Background: MTHFR has been implicated in several diseases like breast cancer and leukemia, where the deficiency of ferric acid has been shown to increase the disease progression as it is a highly polymorphic gene. However there are very few reports of its role in coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence our aim was to genotype the CAD patients and healthy controls with a particular polymorphism at the C677T region of the gene.

Methods: After determining the biochemical and clinical parameters, we tried to correlate these parameters with the MTHFR C667T genotypes which were done by PCR-RFLP.

Results: The presence of the MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with CAD compared to healthy controls. The percentage was greater with other common risk factors such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking in CAD patients than in the normal subjects.

Conclusion: This study investigated the role of genetic polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) as a potential genetic marker associated with coronary artery disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Greener Synthesis and Plant Growth Regulator (PGR) Evaluation of Some Novel Bis-chalcones and Pyrazoles

Prashant P. Chaudhari, Shankarsing S. Rajput

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/40810

Aims: Formation, characterization and biological evaluation (PGR: Plant Growth Regulator) of some innovative bis-chalcone and pyrazole moieties from succinimide and glutarimide derivatives.

Study Design:  The innovative class of bis-chalcones and pyrazoles were comprehended by reaction of Succinic/Glutaric anhydride derivatives and p-fluro benzaldehyde. All reactants in presence of acetic acid endowed a sequence of bis-chalcones and further, they endure cyclisationcyclisation with hydrazine hydrate to yield pyrazoles. Microwave irradiation (solvent free) helps to make it better and easier. All the synthesized compounds have been tested as PGR against maize and moong seeds.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental: Department of Engineering Science, Dr D Y Patil School of Engineering, Dr D Y Patil Knowledge City, Charoli (Bk), Lohegaon, Pune (412105), Characterization:  Central Instrumentation Facility, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune - 411 007 [India] between January 2013 to July 2017.

Methodology: Melting points were recorded in open glass capillaries and were uncorrected. The chemical structures of the obtained compounds were confirmed by spectral analyses. IR spectra (in KBr pallets) were recorded on Brucker alpha FTIR spectrophotometer. 1H NMR spectra were recorded on and 500 MHz by Brucker spectrophotometer. Maize (Rajeshwar) and moong (PKVM-8802) were used for PGR testing.

Results: It is precisely that; a novel class of bis-chalcones (I-VI) and pyrazoles (VII-XII) derivatives were synthesized by efficient, succinct methodology. It was unaffectedly and honestly scrutinized and characterized spectral data, physical constants. Also, all the synthesized novel compounds were tested as PGR against maize and moong seeds.

Conclusion: Conspicuous difference is found in the yield of greener methodology than conventional. The Compound III and VII achieved excellent yield via greener path. Also Compound III, VII, IX and XII are found very good plant growth regulator.