Open Access Short communication

Response of Chironomus striatapennis Larvae Exposed to Three Heavy Metals

Rahul Podder, Susanta Nath, Biplob Kumar Modak, Sudipta Das

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/40933

In this experiment, estimation of LC50 of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) was carried out when Chironomus striatapennis was exposed to different treatment doses. Chi square was used to test for heterogeneity and the result was found to be significant (p<0.05) in all three metals. Fourth instar larvae were collected from breeding aquarium under laboratory conditions and exposed for 96 hours to different doses of Pb, Cd and Hg for static bioassay to measure the LC50. Ten fourth instar larvae were placed in 100 ml beaker with 50 ml of each test solution. Larvae were exposed to six different concentrations, consisting of five trials. A control was also maintained wherein organisms were exposed to distilled water. Larvae were not fed during the toxicity tests. All beakers were free from tube forming materials. Data of mortality were subjected to probit analysis. Results showed that sensitivity of larvae to metals was Hg> Cd >Pb. C. striatapennis showed noticeable response in LC50 study and was sensitive to low doses of heavy metals. Several secondary consumers have preferred this larva as their food. So unplanned industrialization may increase the level of heavy metals in the aquatic ecosystem which will accumulate slowly but definitely in different trophic level and at the same time unusual death of these larvae may indirectly change the equilibrium of the aquatic ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Assessment of Fauna Species Diversity in Ipinu Igede Community Range Forest in Oju Local Government of Benue State, Nigeria

G. O. Yager, A. A. Alarape, O. A. Onuwa

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/41060

Background and Objectives: Appraisal of fauna species which form an integral part of range ecology, in rangeland based protected areas is necessary before any meaningful conservation work can commence. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of fauna species in the community forest.

Methodology: Animal species were enumerated through direct on-site using four transects line of 2.0 km by 10 m broad distributed randomly, field observation and indirect indices. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (table, figures and plates).

Results: Fifty-six species of wild animals from 40 families were observed in the study area. There were 21 species of mammals from 15 families, 6 species of reptiles from 6 families and 29 species of birds from 19 families. A total of 1,419 sightings were recorded. The most abundant animal species found in the area were Epixerus ebii, Eidolon helvum, Chlorocebus tantalus, Papio anubis, Philothemus irregularis, Musophaga violacea, Numidia meleagris and Francolinus bicalcaratus. The status of most mammals was Low risk-conservation dependent as applicable to reptiles. All the birds are known to breed in the reserve. Transect C had the highest diversity index (0.0130) and transect A had the lowest animal diversity index (0.0061) but with the highest species count of thirty six (36) and individual animal species sighted (454).

Conclusions: The community forest support unique fauna species making it significant in terms of conservation and scientific interest and has to be protected through conservation awareness and community participation to conserve the current state and enhanced its range productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biolog Identification of Fermenting Yeasts from Fermented Teff (Eragrostis teff (Zucc.)) Dough

Belay Tilahun, Eyob Kassaye, Getaw Abera, Anteneh Tesfaye, Diriba Muleta, Andualem Bahiru, Zewdu Terefework

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/40012

Background: Injera is one of the baked product, which is commonly prepared from teff (Eragrostis teff (Zucc.)) flour. It is a staple food and believed to be consumed on daily basis by two-thirds of Ethiopians, a population of nearly 100 million. As it is a product of naturally fermented dough, the course of fermentation is done by consortia of microorganisms. Therefore, this study was aimed to isolate and identify yeasts from fermenting Teff (Eragrostis teff) dough.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from different sources in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Laboratory isolation and identification of isolates were carried out at Holeta Biotechnology Institute, Microbial Biotechnology laboratory and Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity, Microbial laboratory from December to April 2015 to June 2016 G. C.

Methodology: A total of 200 dough samples were collected from households with different fermentation stage. Twenty (20) yeast isolates with different cultural characteristics were selected and further identified by ominilog identification systems.

Results: The seven yeast isolates obtained from teff dough were identified as Pichia fermentans, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula aurantiaca B, Pichia fluxuum, Candida humilis, Trichosporon beigelii B and, Cryptococcus albidus Var aerus

Conclusion: This study has confirmed the presence of different yeast in the fermenting teff dough and also supports the involvement of consortia of various groups of microorganisms in the course of the fermentation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Acute Toxicity of Ichthyotoxic Plants (Tephrosia vogelii, Adenia cissampeloides and Asystasia vogeliana) on Farmed African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

U. U. Uno, P. B. Ekpo, C. F. Onwudiwe, R. C. Agu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/41275

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of concentration and duration of ichthyotoxic plants (Tephrosia vogelii, Adenia cissampeloides and Asystasia vogeliana) on the mortality rate of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The total of 370 catfish were distributed into different aquaria containing the different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/l) of Tephrosia vogelii, Adenia cissampeloides and Asystasia vogeliana extracts, respectively with 10 animals in each aquarium using a completely randomized design (CRD) in a factorial layout. They were exposed to the extracts for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The control group was also set under the same experimental conditions without the extracts. The result revealed that the extracts concentration had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the mortality rate of the fish. Also, the effect of the different durations was significant (p<0.05) on mortality rates of the exposed animals. Mortality rate was increased as the duration increased. The interaction effect between the concentrations and durations showed that the toxic effect of the extracts on the fish was more pronounced at the highest concentration and duration of exposure. Thus, this study has shown the potency of Tephrosia vogelii, Adenia cissampeloides and Asystasia vogeliana leaves extract as a fish poisoning plant suggesting that the use of the plants as a fishing stock should be regulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haemoparasites of Bovine (Sokoto gudali) Species Slaughtered in Port Harcourt Metropololis, Rivers State, Nigeria

J. D. Obed, H. O. Imafidor

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/39625

Background: The study was embarked on to evaluate the presence of haemoparasitemia in cattle slaughtered in three abattoirs in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Methods: One hundred and five (105) blood samples were obtained from healthy Sokoto Gudali breed of cattle from three abattoirs (Trans-Amadi, Rumuokoro and Eastern-by-Pass) between the months of July and September, 2016, were processed for microscopic examination using Giemsa Stained thick and thin smear preparations of the samples.

Results: Twelve (11.43%) of the cattle showed parasitemia. Abattoir specific prevalence indicated 5.71%, 3.81% and 1.90% for Trans-Amadi, Rumuokoro and Eastern-by-Pass respectively. The three species of parasites identified; Anaplasma spp., Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. recorded a prevalence of 5.71%, 3.81% and 1.90% respectively. Sex related parasitemia showed that females had higher prevalence of 6.67% than males (4.76%) which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Age related prevalence showed that older cattle (sexually mature) recorded higher prevalence of 12.72% than the younger ones (sexually immature) (10.00%), which was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The study showed a higher prevalence of haemoparasites in slaughtered cattle at Trans-Amadi followed by Rumuokoro and Eastern-by-Pass abbatoirs respectively. 

Conclusion: The study provides information on the haemoparasites status of cattle slaughtered in Port-Harcourt metropolis. Ectoparasites are known to be the primary vectors to haemoparasites therefore, level of ectoparasites should be controlled and management practices should be improved upon in order to maximize wholesome beef for the general populace.