Open Access Minireview Article

Potential Strategies in Treating Tumours

Venkata Narasimha Kadali, Joyeeta Mitra, Sheji Chandran, Teena Sajan, Smitha Murthy

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/39869

Cancer, an absolute sickness exemplified merely by uncontrolled cell proliferation, has always been a concern for universal well-being. The recurrence of cancer is, in fact, mounting globally and fatality rate resulting from this malady is markedly high. Besides genetic alterations, epigenetic modifications also play a vital role in Cancer advancement. Advancements in genomics and proteomics studies enabled researchers to search potential drug targets leading to molecular therapeutics, for instance, Atezolizumab, Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab. This article discusses the potential role of some approaches in treating tumours such as free Hyaluronidase, Hsp90 Inhibitors, Liposomes, Anti–Angiogenesis agents, Apoptosis Proteins Inhibitors, Histone deacetylases inhibitors, Nanomedicine, Blockade of PD‑1/PD‑L1 pathway.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Parameters of Fallowing Farmland Soils as It Affects Geohelminths in Isiodu, Emohua Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria

Imafidor Helen, Owhoeli Ovutor

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/39768

Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters of soils in environments used for open defaecation as if affects the prevalence of geohelminthes in Isiodu Emohua, Rivers State, South South, Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 240 soil samples were collected randomly from fallowing Farmlands used for open defaecation in Isiodu Community in Emohua local Government Area, between the months of January-June 2013 and 2014 respectively. The samples were analysed for temperature, pH, organic content and Centrifugal flotation method was used to examine the samples for geohelminthes.

Results: Evaluation of the results after two variations gave an average of 74 (61.6%) of the samples as positive for geohelminthes; 22 (18.3%), 46(38.3%) and 6 (5%) for sandy, loamy and clayey soils respectively. This was statistically significant (P=.05). Physico-chemical parameters were; 27.3± 1ºC, 6.1 ± .2 and 12.9 ± 3% for temperature, pH and % organic matter with eggs and larvae of geohelminthes recovered one hundred times; sandy: 38 (38%), Loamy: 54 (54%) and Clayey: 8 (8%). Ascaris spp 30 (30%), Trichuris spp. 16 (16%), hookworms 11 (11%), Strongyloides spp. 5 (5%), Enterobius    spp. 2 (2%), Trichostrongylus spp. 2 (2%), Meloidogyne spp. 21 (21%), Buracephalus spp. 1 (1%), Bayliascaris spp. 3 (3%), and Toxocara spp.  9 (9%).                                                                                                                                                                  Conclusion: Soil samples with higher physico-chemical parameters especially temperature and organic matter recorded high prevalence of the major human and plant geohelminthes in the area. Therefore direct dumping of human and other household waste to the soils at undesignated places should be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activities of Coelomic Fluid of Local Earthworms against Disease Causing Microorganisms

K. C. Sethulakshmi, R. Lakshmi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/39670

The antibacterial properties of coelomic fluid of local earthworms (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Megascolex konkanensis, Drawida ghatensis) against selected pathogens like Vibrio cholera, Vibrio parahaemoliticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The study was conducted in School of Environmental Science and College of Veterinary and Animal Science in May 2017 to November 2017. The earthworm was collected on the basis of hand sorting method and Coelomic fluid was collected due to cold shock drips. Antimicrobial activity of coelomic fluid of earthworms was assessed by agar well diffusion method. The result revealed that the maximum inhibition  zone  of  18 mm and  16 mm  showed  by coelomic fluid of P. corethrurus and M. konkanensis against S. aureus. The Drawida ghatensis shows least antibacterial activities against selected pathogens. The staphylococcus aureus shows highest inhibition zone against coelomic fluid of all the selected earthworms and least result showing in bacterial isolate vibrio parahaemoliticus. From the study coelomic fluid activity is good for pathogen like salmonella typhi and E. coli and have medicinal values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Chemo-therapeutic Potential of Dialium guineense (Wild) and Annona muricata L. Leaf Extract on Dumpsite Leachate Induced Hepatoxicity in Wistar Rats

Albert C. Ibezute, Sese-Owei A. Ekaye, Fortune U. Adike

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/35887

Aims: To compare the chemo-therapeutic potential of Dialium guineense and Annona muricata Leaf extract on dumpsite leachate induced hepatoxicity of Wister rats.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal and Environmental Biology (Animal Unit) and Department of Life Science, University of Benin, Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria, between January 2016 and July 2017.

Methodology: A total of 30 Wister rats were acclimatized for two weeks and randomly distributed into five groups A to E; and were administered 2ml each different treatment protocol once every 48 hours for 30days.After the exposure period, the surviving rats were examined and sacrificed. Blood and organs were collected for analysis. After which the organ weight indices, clinical biochemistry, tissue histology and the expression of some hepatic pro-inflammatory genes were examined.

Results: The concentration of heavy metals and anions in the test samples were above standard permissible limits. Biochemical analysis showed that leachate administration in Wister rats caused an increase in glucose 24.15%, albumin 32.73% with a decrease in alkaline phosphatase 63.91% and glucose 13.96%. Histopathological investigations indicated that the leachate provoked alterations in the liver tissue; which include mild infiltration vascular congestion, patchy vascular ulceration and a mild periportal filtrates of inflammatory cells. An increased expression of CCL11 mRNA, TGF-α mRNA and IL-1 in hepatic tissues as a result of leachate administration was observed. However, the administration of different abatements with the leachate prevented tissue damage in the Wister rat to varying degree in the following order: combined abatement >Dialium guineense>Annona muricata.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study have shown the potentials of Ikhueniro dumpsite leachate to induce tissue and genetic dysfunction probably via direct and/or indirect chemical disruption of the blood. The combined abatement was a better abatement when compared to Dialium guineense and Annona muricata.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC Beta-lactamase Enzyme among Escherichia coli Isolates in Livestock, South Nigeria

A. N. Umo, O. U. M. John, E. A. Ekpuk

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/40516

AmpC beta-lactamases are bacterial enzymes that hydrolyse third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins and cephamycins engendering resistance to these categories of antibiotic and is a serious threat to the currently available antibiotic armory both in human and veterinary medicine. In this study, the detection of AmpC beta-lactamase-producing E. coli in some common livestock animals was studied. A total of 196 faecal samples were aseptically collected from cattle, chicken, goat and swine from different parts of Uyo Metropolis into sterile universal containers. Samples were processed by inoculating onto macConkey agar using streak plate technique and incubated at 37oC for 18-24 hours after which growth were identified using standard identification procedures. Susceptibility profile of each of the identified E. coli isolate to some antibiotics was determined using the agar disk diffusion method. Resistant E. coli isolates to third and fourth generation cephalosporins were screened to detect ESBL producers using the modified double disk synergy test while AmpC beta-lactamase production was done by the modified disk test. The result shows that out of a total number of 123 E. coli isolates, 55.68% were potential ESBL producers while 30.68% were confirmed to be AmpC producers. The highest percentage of 5.37% came from Chicken, while the least percentage of 3.23% was from Pig and Goat respectively. The result of this study shows the presence of AmpC beta-lactamase producing E. coli in all the groups of animal tested. Therefore, improved surveillance of antibiotic use and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in farm animals should be given an urgent attention. Application of bio security and hygiene programs in the livestock breeding sector should be considered as a favorable effect on the restriction transfer of antibiotic resistance.