Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Varying Protein Levels on Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Growth, Protein Utilization and Yield in Hapa System

M. U. Effiong, I. K. Esenowo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/35557

The study evaluated effects of varying dietary protein levels on growth, protein utilization, survival and yield of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus using floating net-hapa (1 m x 1 m x 1 m) system. A total of 300 catfish fingerlings (4.50± 0.01 g) were randomly stocked at 20 fish/m3 hapa. Five diets: Diet 1 (40% cp), Diet 2 (42.5% cp), Diet 3 (45% cp), Diet 4 (47.5% cp) and Diet 5 (50% cp) were formulated and fed to triplicate groups for 24 weeks. Growth responses and economic performances of fish harvested under various treatments were evaluated. Results showed that no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in metabolic growth rate, percentage survival, total feed intake, cost of feeding and total cost of production in all the treatments. However, significant differences (p < 0.05) existed in specific growth rates, gross profit, profit index and economic conversion ratio. The preferential diet being 42.5% protein, produced the highest mean final weight (946.89 g), specific growth rate (3.21%/day), food conversion ratio (0.27), protein productive value (59.55%) and protein index (5.29 g/day), highest yield  (17,850 kg/hapa), gross profit (774/hapa) and economic conversion ratio (58.98). From these results, it was concluded that C. gariepinus would grow best in floating net-hapa when fed diets containing 42.5% protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chronic Kidney Disease among Ghanaian HIV Individuals on HAART in the Ho Municipality: A Single-Center Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

Sylvester Yao Lokpo, WKBA Owiredu, James Osei-Yeboah, Gameli Kwame Norgbe, Lydia Enyonam Kuatsienu, Mathias Tawiah Anim, Seyram Tetteh Quarshie, Felix Ayroe, Francis Abeku Ussher, Edward Yiadom Boakye, Tibemponi Ntoni, Prince Senyo Kwasi Nyamadi, Roseline Avorkliyah

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/38596

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains one of the complications of HIV infection among individuals on antiretroviral medication. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD among Ghanaians with HIV on antiretroviral medications at the Ho Municipal Hospital.

Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 170 previously diagnosed HIV-infected patients on HAART treatment at the ART Clinic of the Ho Municipal Hospital. The participants aged between 24 and 78 years were conveniently and purposively recruited into the study from February to May 2017. Using patients’ folders, data on patients’ age, gender, type of medication(s) and duration on HAART medication were obtained. Patients’ blood samples were obtained for the estimation of CD4 count and serum creatinine concentration. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) was calculated based on serum creatinine levels using the four-Variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (4v-MDRD) and the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations.

Results: The prevalence of CKD was estimated at 17.06% and 18.82% based on the 4v-MDRD and the CKD-EPI equations respectively. Females recorded a higher prevalence (20.00% and 22.14%) compared to their male counterparts (3.33% and 3.33%) using the 4v-MDRD and the CKD-EPI equations respectively. Low immunological recovery (CD4 cell count <500 cell/mm3) and longer duration on HAART (7-9 years) accounted for higher CKD prevalence.

Conclusion: In these patients receiving HAART treatment at the Ho Municipal Hospital, a high burden of CKD was observed among the female group. HAART regimen containing concurrent Nevirapine and Tenofovir had the highest CKD among the participants.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Population Scenario of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) in and around Alwara Lake of District Kaushambi (U.P.), India

Ashok Kumar Verma, Shri Prakash

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/38911

The Indian Sarus crane, Grus antigone antigone is one of the most graceful, monogamous, non-migratory, and tallest flying bird of the world. Pairing for lifelong and lionize legendry marital fidelity, for which the species has garnered global popularity. This is the only resident breeding crane of the Indian subcontinent that has been declared as ‘State Bird’ by the Government of Uttar Pradesh, a state of the Indian Republic. However, due to the shrinking of wetlands at an alarming speed in the country, the population of this bird has become vulnerable.  Present exploration is aimed to study the population of sarus crane in the year 2016 in and around the Alwara Lake of district Kaushambi (Uttar Pradesh) India and their comparison to sarus crane population recorded in 2012 and 2015 in the same study area. This comparison reflects an increasing population scenario of the bird in the area studied.  It has been observed that the prevailing ecological conditions of the lake, the crane friendly behaviour of the local residents and awareness efforts of the authors have a positive correlation in the conservation and increasing population trends of this vulnerable bird. This conservation model can, therefore, be applied elsewhere for the conservation of other such species. Moreover, the authors strongly recommend continuous population census of this bird and declaration of the entire Alwara Lake as Sarus Sanctuary to make it safe zone for the conservation of Sarus crane.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Biological Activity of Cupressus sempervirens Extracts against Musca domestica

Ahmed I. Hasaballah, Ahmed Z. Shehata, Mohammad A. Fouda, Mostafa I. Hassan, Mohammed E. Gad

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/38023

The biological activity against the larval, pupal and adult stages, moreover, the efficacy on reproductive potential, antifeedant and repellency activity of ethanolic, acetone and petroleum ether, leaves and stems extracts of C. sempervirens against the housefly, M. domestica were evaluated. The larval and pupal duration, pupal mortality, adult emergence and growth index were highly affected by different extracts tested. The antifeedant and repellent activity of was varied depending on the solvent, plant parts used in extraction and the dose of extract. Tested extracts significantly reduced the fecundity and increased the sterility. Based on LC50, the toxicity may be arranged as follows: leaves > stems. Petroleum ether extract from leaves was more effective in inducing the fecundity, antifeedant, repellent actions and egg-hatchability than those from stems. These results may provide an opportunity to develop alternatives to costly organic pesticides using some available cheap plants, which are usually safe to the environment and to other living organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Ginseng, Green Tea, Cinnamon Their Combination against Acetamiprid - induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

Mona I. M. Shahin

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/38202

The present study aimed to investigate whether ginseng, green tea and cinnamon or/and mixture can improve liver in a rats and whether this therapeutic approach resulted in amelioration in lipids profile (serum cholesterol, triglycerides, Serum HDL, Serum LDL, FT3 and FT4), liver function profile (serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total protein and albumin) and cytokines profile (serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß and interleukin-6). Male albino rats weighing 150 g ± 10% were used. They were divided into two groups: negative control and Acetamiprid groups. The results demonstrated that Acetamiprid induced antioxidant and biochemical alterations at testing periods 15 and 30 days. The obtained results revealed a significant (P<0.001) increase in Lipid parameters in Acetamiprid rats than those in their control ones. Lipid parameters (serum cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids & cholesterol) were significantly (P<0.001) elevated in Acetamiprid rats compared with their corresponding control group. On the other hand, induction of Acetamiprid to rats caused a significant (P<0.001) decrease in adiponectin level. Liver function tests (serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase) were significantly (P<0.001) increased in Acetamiprid rats compared with their corresponding control group But, the levels of serum total protein and albumin were remarkably decreased in Acetamiprid rats group. A considerable (P<0.001) elevation were occurred in all cytokines parameters (serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-2 and interleukin-14) in Acetamiprid rats group compared with their corresponding control group. When Acetamiprid rats group was treated with ginseng, green tea and cinnamon or/and mixture a considerable amelioration effects in all previously studied parameters were pronounced dependent on certain mechanisms and time of treatment.