Open Access Original Research Article

Homestead Plant Diversity at the Ship Breaking Areas of Bangladesh

R. Nandi, Md. Al Murad, Tapas Kumar Dey

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/36115

Unplanned ship breaking at the Sitakund coast in Chittagong, Bangladesh is contaminating the surrounding vegetation mainly through the discharge of heavy metals from the discarded ship paints. Therefore, the present study was conducted with an aim to explore homestead plant diversity in ship breaking areas at Sitakunda sub-district in Bangladesh from where Salimpur and Kumira union was selected as ship breaking areas (SBA) whereas Bansbaria and Barabkunda as non-ship breaking areas (NSBA). In total 104 households were surveyed to ascertain plant diversity. Present study revealed that NSBA have more plant diversity than SBA. A total of 27 tree species including fruits, timber, fuel wood, aesthetics and medicinal were found in SBA while 30 species were found in NSBA. Shanon Winner index value was 2.5 in SBA whereas in NSBA it was 2.7. Agro-crop diversity in both areas was almost same. A total 15 agro-crop species were found in SBA and 16 species in NSBA. Average production of rice in SBA (2251.91 kg/yr/household) was quite higher compared to the NSBA (380.2 kg/yr/household). This study prioritizes the importance of soil properties analysis at the ship breaking areas and links it with the growth of plant vegetation to check if there is any significant relationship between them. Moreover, it is also very crucial to investigate the heavy metal concentration in plant including agro-crop and forest crop growing around this area. Based on findings from the analysis of soil properties and heavy metal concentration in soil and plant, farmers can be prescribed to plant site specific species for more production and sustainable homestead forest management at the ship breaking areas of Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leaf Anatomical Characteristics and Its Heritability of Different Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes as Influenced by Moderate and Severe Water Stress

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, R. M. Abd El-Salam, A. E. E. Badran, S. T. Boulos, Mai M. A. El-Moghazi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/37214

Many plants can avoid the adverse effects of drought by developing special epidermal cell bladders which may serve as external water reservoirs and having small and thick-walled cells. The present investigation aimed at: (i) studying the effect of drought stress on quinoa leaf anatomical traits and their heritability, genetic advance from selection and (ii) describing differences among drought tolerant and susceptible genotypes in such traits following the imposition of water deficit. A field experiment was carried out in the growing season 2015/2016, using a split plot design with five replications. Main plots were allotted to three irrigation regimes, i.e. well watering (WW) [95% field capacity (FC)], moderate water stress (WS) [65% FC] and severe water stress (SWS) [35% FC] and sub plots to five genotypes. Mean squares due to genotypes, irrigation regimes and their interaction were significant for all studied leaf anatomical traits. Water stress caused a significant decrease in leaf thickness under WS and SWS, upper and lower epidermis under WS, palisade and spongy layers under SWS, but caused a significant increase in palisade and spongy layers under WS and upper and lower epidermis under SWS. The genotype CICA-17 (tolerant genotype) was the first in thickness for upper epidermis, and leaf and second in lower epidermis, palisade and spongy layers. On the other hand, the genotypes Ollague (sensitive) had the thinnest layers in upper and lower epidermis. Broad-sense heritability estimates for anatomical traits were very high in magnitude (>87.0%), except for lower epidermis (41.18, 59.41 and 33.33%) under WW, WS and SWS, respectively. Genetic advance from selection ranged from 15.40% for upper epidermis to 72.97% for palisade layer under SWS, from 52.66% for leaf thickness to 82.72% for palisade layer under WS and from 30.40% for leaf thickness to 87.12% for spongy layer under WW.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Endogenous Hormone Levels and Phenolic Profiles in Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Calli of Endemic Plant Campanula tomentosa L.

Melek Işık Coşkun, Meliha Gemici, Hasan Yildirim

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/34635

A micropropagation method was developed for the first time in Campanula tomentosa L. (Campanulaceae), adapted to chasmophytic habitats and colonized on calcareous rocky cliffs. Seeds of C. tomentosa were germinated on ½ MS(33%), N6 (30%), B5(11%) and MS(4%) media for callus initiation, leaf explants taken from sterile seedlings were cultured after they were transferred to the MS, ½ MS, N6 and B5 media. The effect of the auxin/cytokine ratio in media and the quality of the callus varied depending on the nutrient medium made formation of a different callus type. The development of two callus types was observed, type I composed of globular embryos was observed in the MS medium (85.71%) and type II translucent, watery and lacking any sign of organization was observed in the B5 medium (71.43%).

The objective of this study was to investigate how acetone solvent systems affected the culture media of the total phenolic content (TPC), and condensed tannins content (CTC) in embryogenic, non-embryogenic callus and in vitro germinated roots. The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC and CTC for both1/2 MS type II. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for N6 root and CTC for 1/2 MS root.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Obesity on Selected Reproductive Parameters in Female Sprague Dawley Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Model

Judith Achoki, Albert Getabu, Jemimah Oduma

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/37902

Aims: To determine changes in frequency of occurrence and durations of estrous cycle stages and measure serum levels of cortisol and estradiol in Sprague Dawley rats.

Study Design: Laboratory Experimental research Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology, Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi Kenya, March to June 2017.

Methodology: Obesity was induced through a High Energy Diet (HED) after which frequency of occurrence and durations of estrous cycles stages, serum estradiol 17b and cortisol hormone levels were analyzed. Twenty four, three-month-old sexually mature female Sprague Dawley rats  grouped into replicates of six rats were fed either on HED (n=12) or a control diet (n=12) for seven weeks after which 12 obese rats and 12 controls were evaluated for estrous cycles durations and frequency of occurrence through vaginal smears. Six rats from control and obese groups then underwent cervical dislocation followed by collection of blood through cardiac puncture. This was followed by analysis of serum cortisol and estradiol 17b hormone levels using ELISA technique, Mean values of estrous cycle stages’ frequencies of occurrence, serum levels of cortisol and estradiol were subjected to Student t-test to evaluate any significant differences at P=.05.

Results: Obese rats had disrupted and extended estrous cycle stages, elevated serum cortisol (5.12±1.45) and estradiol (214±17.28) levels. Student t-test analysis indicated significant differences between means of frequencies of occurrence of proestrus (t=-2.66, P=.02) estrus (t=5.13, P=.00) and diestrus (t=-2.45, P=.02) stages as well as serum levels of cortisol (-2.87, P=.04) and estradiol 17b (t=5.37, P=.00). There was an inverse correlation between concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in blood sera of obese rats:-r =0.64.

Conclusion: Obesity leads to an inverse relationship between estradiol and cortisol resulting to disruption in the rat’s estrous cycles.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Acute Toxicity and Cytotoxic Activity of Prunus avium Extracts against Artemia salina Larva

S. O. Bada, A. M. Oyetayo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/37484

Aim: This investigation was aimed at determining the cytotoxic activity of Prunus avium leaf and stem bark extracts as well as their acute toxicity in rats.

Methodology: The plant materials were air dried and grinded mechanically followed by solvent

(ethanol) percolation for 48  h. Freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii were exposed to the extracts in artificial sea water in the cytotoxic assay. Also, twelve adult male albino rats were placed in three groups of four (4) rats each, group I received distilled water, II and III were given orally, 300 and 200 mg/Kg body weight of the leaf and stem bark extract respectively for a period of 7 days. Haematological indices such as WBC, RBC, PCV, Hb and platelets were assayed while the internal organs including heart, liver and kidneys were weighed. The levels of serum ALT, ALP and AST were also determined.

Results: In the cytotoxic assay, A. salina showed high mortality against the plant crude extracts. The LC50 value of 8.89 ppm and 3.07 ppm were obtained for the leaf and stem bark extracts respectively. In the acute toxicity assay, an oral median lethal dose LD50 of the plant leaf and stem bark extracts were found to be 2738.61 mg/kg bw and 1870.83 mg/kg bw respectively. There were significant (p=0.05) reduction in the levels of RBC, PCV and Hb in the treated rats while there were increase in WBC and platelets compared with the control. Moreover, the plant extract had a significant (p<0.05) increase on the weight of liver of the treated groups II (5.323), III (6.055) compared with the control (4.881g). Also, there was a significant increase in the heart weight in group III (0.738g) while that of control (0.577g) and group II (0.609g) were not significantly different. Further, there was a significant increase in ALP and AST in treated groups (II and III) while ALT increased in group III whereas it was comparable in group II and control.

Conclusion: P. avium extracts may possess antitumor activity as shown with the effect on brine shrimps. Also, the plant leaf and stem bark appears to possess adverse effect on heart and liver of rats at high doses. Therefore it should be used in moderation as it is capable of causing suppression of haematopoietic system as well as multiple organ failure at high doses.