Open Access Short communication

Food Preservatives and Their Uses: A Short Report

Dibyaranjan Samal, Sushanto Gouda, Jayanta Kumar Patra

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/36091

Packaged food and beverages are consumed all over the world for their nutritional value, durability, thirst quenching properties, stimulating effect and for their medicinal values. With changing lifestyle and requirements, people now often prefers the packaged food products over homemade products. Although, various food products including the beverages pass through several, quality, safety and regulatory mandates, but the consumers are concerned about the food preservatives since in some cases, allergic reaction to generally recognized as safe (GRAS) food has been reported. The study represents the usages of different forms of preservatives in packaged food industry along with their beneficial and adverse effects and also highlights their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential to serve the consumer’s needs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Evaluation of Haemoparasites in Cattle and Goats Slaughtered at Lafia Abattoir, Nigeria

M. M. Adua, K. O. Idahor

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/35575

Haematological evaluation is generally used to determine the health conditions of farm animals. Animals with normal blood compositions (without parasites) are believed to likely perform more efficiently. Essentially, evaluation of blood offers the opportunity to inspect the health status of an animal earmarked for human consumption to ascertain the meat quality and safety. Yet, little is known about possible haemoparasitism among the animals slaughtered at Lafia abattoir hence this study was conducted. Blood samples were collected from a total of 114 animals (comprising 80 cattle and 34 goats) at Lafia abattoir and screened for the presence of haemoparasites. It was observed that Anaplasma marginale (6.1%), Babesia bovis (7%), B. motasi (3.5%) and Trypanosoma vivax (3.5) were the haemoparasites species found in cattle. Whereas Theileria mutans (2.6%), Theileria ovis (5.3%), Anaplasma ovis (2.6%) and Trypanosoma ovis (1.8%) were the cases recorded in goats. Breed resistance was not observed as all the breeds were infected with one species or the other. White Fulani had the highest (8.8%) cases among the cattle breeds and the least case (3.5%) was recorded in Sokoto Gudali while in goats, highest case (9.6%) was recorded in Red Sokoto breeds. Packed cell volume of the infected animals was significantly influenced by the presence of haemoparasites, possibly suggesting that haemoparasitism was endemic in cattle and goats reared in the study area. Yet, both the infected and non-infected animals studied were somewhat not anaemic. Therefore, cattle and goats slaughtered at Lafia abattoir were probably safe for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance, Survival and Feed Utilization of the African Catfish Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes, 1840) Fed Diets with Varying Inclusion Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MLM)

Eyo, Victor Oscar, Ivon, Ettah Akpang

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/35614

Aims: To evaluate the effects of varying inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MLM) on the growth, survival and food utilization of the African catfish Heterobranchus longifilis.

Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Oceanography, University of Calabar, Nigeria, between January 2017 and May 2017.

Methodology: Fifteen (15) tarpaulin unit measuring 100 by 80 by 100 cm was used to aid triplication of the five experimental groups.  Five isonitrogenous feeds including Feed A (control), Feed B (5% MLM), Feed C (10% MLM), Feed D (15% MLM) and Feed E (20% MLM) were used for this study. A total of three hundred (300) fingerlings of H. longifilis with mean bulk body weight 361.60 ± 0.3 g and total length 11.15 ± 0.04 cm were stocked in the 15 units (20 in each unit).

Results: M. oleifera leaf meal (MLM) had a crude protein level of 27.80 ± 0.02%, crude fibre (18.50 ± 0.01%), ash (6.45 ± 0.02%), moisture (8.36 ± 0.03%), crude fat (2.72 ± 0.02%) and nitrogen free extract (36.17 ± 0.02%). Best results for all the growth performance indices was obtained in fish fed Feed D (15% MLM) whereas least values were obtained in the control diets with no M. oleifera leaf meal. Weight gain (g), length gain (cm), growth rate (g/day), specific growth rate (%/day) and mean growth rate (mg/day) were significantly (P=0.05) highest in fish fed Feed D (15% MLM) and least in fish fed Feed A (control diet). Food conversion ratio (FCR) and food conversion efficiency of the experimental fishes did not vary significantly (P=0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, M. oleifera leaf meal (MLM) could be substituted with fish meal in H. longifilis diets up to 15 % level without any negation with regards to growth, food utilization and survival.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Sub-chronic Administration of Fruit Extracts of Xylopia aethiopica on Haematopoietic System of Male Wistar Albino Rats

E. A. Orji, S. I. Egba, B. O. Mgbenka

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/36422

This study investigated the hematological effects of aqueous and methanolic fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica on Wistar albino rats. A total of 84 rats weighing between 100 and 120 g were randomly selected and divided into seven groups (A-G) of four rats per group with 3 replicates. Group A (control), was administered commercial feed and water only ad libitum, groups B, C, D were administered 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Xylopia aethiopica respectively while rats in groups E, F, G were fed orally with 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of X. aethiopica respectively. The study lasted for 6 weeks accompanied by weekly collection of blood samples for analysis. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease and non-significant (p>0.05) difference in PCV level (weeks 1 and 2) in the low dose groups (50 mg/kg) and other groups respectively when compared to the control. The RBC count of all groups in the aqueous extract (week 2) showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease while other groups showed non-significant (p>0.05) difference (weeks 1 and 2) in RBC, WBC and HB levels when compared to the control.  In week 4, there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in WBC level and a non-significant (p>0.05) difference in HB and RBC concentrations across all groups, respectively while the high dose (150 mg/kg) and other groups showed significant (p<0.05) and non-significant (p>0.05) difference, respectively in PCV level when compared to the control. Week 5 results showed non-significant (p>0.05) difference in RBC and WBC counts across all groups, while HB concentration showed significant (p<0.05) increase and non-significant (p>0.05) difference in the aqueous and methanolic extracts across all groups respectively when compared to the control. The significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of the animals as observed majorly in all groups across the six (6) weeks is indicative that the extracts may likely be beneficial in obesity control and was similar for both methanol and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that extracts of Xylopia aethipica possess some influence on the hemopoietic system and may have weight lowering properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Hybridization on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Vitamins Enrichment

C. V. Ilodibia, U. A. Achebe, S. N. Udearoh, C. U. Arubalueze

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/36782

Studies have shown that significant differences exist in the morphological, Phytochemical and nutrient characteristics among okra varieties. The aim of Plant breeders is to substitute the undesirable qualities of plants with desirable ones so that it results in higher yield of crops of improved quality. In this study, hybridization was carried out on two varieties of okra namely: Clemson spineless and dwarf long green to raise F1 so as to assess the impact of hybridization on okra nutrient enrichment as shown in vitamin compositions (vitamin A, B1, B2, B3 and C (fruits part) of the parental plants compared with the F1 hybrid. Results were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the parental and the F1 plants contained varied quantities of all the investigated vitamins. Higher contents of Vitamins A, B2 and C were recorded for the F1 hybrid when compared with the parental plants. So, there was an expression of heterosis indicating that hybridization could greatly enriched vitamin nutrients in okra.

Moreover, F1 generation combined the characters of Clemson Spineless and Dwarf long green varieties and also had additional improved genetic attributes. This can be seen in most nutrients being higher in the F1 hybrid and also the reduced spines in the fruit of the F1 hybrid as opposed to the prominent spines in dwarf long green parent.