Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of 1,5-Bis (3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-3-oxapentane Diacetatocopper on Kidney and Spleen of Rats: Histological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation

Amany E. Nofal, Rania A. Ahmed, Ferial A. El-Massady

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/35256

The present work was carried out to evaluate the histological and immunohistochemical changes of the kidney and spleen of rats after repeated exposure to 1,5-Bis (3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-3-oxapentane diacetatocopper (BDO). Two groups of male albino rats were used. The first group is the control and the second group was i.p. given 1,5-Bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-3-oxapentane diacetatocopper (12 mg / kg body weight) daily for 6 weeks. The results showed that the administration of BDO to rats exhibits various histological effects on tissues of kidney and spleen. Kidney from treated animals showed congestion of blood vessels, degeneration of renal tubules and glomeruli. The spleen tissue lost its characteristic structure and showing interference \ overlap between red and white pulp, enlarged trabecula and degenerated lymphocytes. Histochemical results revealed depletion of total proteins contents in renal tubules and glomeruli and spleen cells of treated rats. Expression of Bcl-2 protein was increased in the kidney and spleen of treated rats. It is concluded from the present work that BDO induced histopathological alterations and apoptosis in kidney and spleen of rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Retrospective Study of Plasmodium Parasites Infection in Ngaski Local Government of Kebbi State, North-West, Nigeria

N. O. Iboyi, M. O. Iboyi, M. E. Adah

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/35655

Malaria remains a major cause of illness and death especially among children under 5 years. It is estimated that more than one million children living in Africa especially in remote areas with poor access to health services die annually from direct and indirect effects of malaria. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium parasites among patients presenting with fever in General Hospital in Wara, Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Northwest, Nigeria. Microscopy was used to determine the presence of malaria parasites in the study area. Data were collected from Nine thousand and eighty-eight patients from year 2014 to 2016 at the Medical Record Department. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. A total of 9088 patients were sampled, of which 5861(64.49%) were positive of the infection. Year 2015 had the highest visitation of 3450 patients out of which 2393 (59.39%) were positive, this was closely followed by year 2014 which had 2990 visitation of which 1720 (57.52%) were positive of the infection and year 2016 had the lowest patients visitation 2648 of which 1748 (56.01%) were positive. There was no significance difference in the prevalence of P. falciparium in three years (p>0.05). Result in this study showed that male had higher infection rate 2574 (77.16%) than female patients 3287 (57.15%). Subjects above 5 years of age had a higher infection rate 2913 (68.05%) and Subjects less than 5 years of age had a lower infection rate 2948 (61.32%). Chi square test shows that there was no significance difference between infection rate and sex (p>0.05). Public health education campaign should be organised to create awareness that may lead to reduction of vectors of malaria parasites and control of the disease especially in young children, Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) should be made available for the inhabitant of the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts and Compounds Isolated from Terminalia nigrovenulosa Plant Grown in Vietnam

Quang-Vinh Nguyen

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/35611

This study was to isolate and identify antioxidant and anticancer compounds from extracts of bark and leaf of Terminalia nigrovenulosa. The EtOAc fraction of bark and n-BuOH fraction of leaf exhibited the highest DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate) radical scavenging activity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectra results showed that gallic acid, ethyl gallate, ellagic acid, catechin and luteolin isolated in EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions were the main components possessed DPPH radical scavenging activity. These fractions and their isolated compounds reduced human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these fractions and their isolated compounds significantly increased caspase-3 activity. Therefore, the reduction of cell viability might be due to the induction of apoptosis via caspase-3 pathway. These findings could be useful for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant cancers from T. nigrovenulosa extracts and isolated compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flora and Fauna Diversity Status on Trans Sumatra Railway Project Development Plan through the Region Sigli – Bireun - Lhokseumawe – Langsa – Besitang, Indonesia

Slamet Isworo, Poerna Sri Oetari

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/35593

Background and Objectives: Plans to build and operate a trans-urban railway line through Aceh and northern Sumatra between Sigli - Bireun - Lhokseumawe - Langsa - Besitang, allowing impacts on flora and fauna habitat conditions on the project. Site. This research was conducted to find the biodiversity around the project site.

Methodology: A collection of species data and number of plants was performed using the Quadrat Nest Plot method, placed on the transect line and observation of field inventories, interviews and literature studies. The results are grouped in protected and endangered species and include endemic species in Indonesia.

Results: The construction of the railway line does not have a significant impact on the flora and fauna around the project footprint. There are 3 primate species that utilize the habitat around the project site that is long-tailed macaques (Macaca fasicularis), Lampung monkeys (Macaca namastrina) Trachypithecus auratus) and includes endemic fauna protected by the Government of Indonesia and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUNC). But the location of the project is just an area for feeding.

Conclusions: An assessment of flora and fauna aspects related to prediction and impact evaluation. Activity plans do not affect or interfere with ecological entities

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Anatomy of Zanthoxylum macrophylla (L.) Sarg. (Rutaceae)

N. A. Igboabuchi, C. V. Ilodibia

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/36104

Anatomical studies were carried out on various parts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla to determine its taxonomical data with regards to anatomical characters. Anatomical study of the transverse sections of the parts (leaf, stem, petiole and root) was carried out using microtomy while leaf epidermal study was carried out using impression technique. Results showed that the transverse sections of various parts (leaf, stem, petiole and root) of the Zanthoxylum macrophylla had similar features including rays in the secondary stem and root. The leaf epidermal study showed the presence of stomata on the abaxial surface only with paracytic stomatal type. The obtained data can be used to enhance proper taxonomic characterization and identification of the plant species.