Open Access Original Research Article

Mother’s Caffeine Ingestion Affects Fecundity and Offspring Birth Weight in Murine Models

O. Owolabi Joshua, Adeyeye Joshua, O. Oyewumi Samson

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/34230

Caffeine is the world most popularly consumed legal neurostimulant. It is naturally found in beverage drinks including coffee and tea. It is also artificially added to several soft and energy drinks, as well as medicinal drugs including analgesics. Caffeine itself can be employed for therapeutic purposes. The wide range of caffeine distribution in substances and its popularity in some cultures makes it almost impossible to regulate its consumption. Several people consume caffeine from one or more sources, daily and almost inadvertently. Yet, caffeine ingestion during pregnancy has been reported to have observable effects on female fertility as well as on embryo, foetal and child health. This investigation was conducted to analyse the effect of different doses of caffeine on pregnancy and foetus at birth with emphasis on the number of offspring and morphological parameters. Thirty two (n=32) adult female pregnant mice (Mus musculus) were divided into four groups- Group A as the Control, Group B was administered the low-dose caffeine (10mg/kg body weight), Group C was administered the medium-dose caffeine (50 mg/kg body weight) and Group D was administered the high-dose caffeine (120 mg/kg body weight). Anhydrous caffeine was dissolved in distilled water to achieve the target dosage for each group and animals were administered caffeine daily throughout the period of pregnancy. At birth, the parameters of fecundity were examined especially with respect to the average litter number; total sum of litter weights as well as the average litters’ weights across the experimental animal groups. Caffeine significantly affected birth weight of the offspring; treated groups had fewer offspring per birth and lower sum of offspring weights. Caffeine had observable effects on pregnancy and litters in manner that were negative especially at the higher doses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Six Faba Bean Genotypes and Their F2 Hybrids and Reciprocals

M. M. F. Abdalla, M. M. Shafik, Sabah M. Attia, Hend A. Ghannam

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/34491

The present investigation was carried out at Giza and Sids Research Stations during 2011/2012 to 2013/14 growing seasons. A diallel cross including reciprocals among six faba bean genotypes (, Giza 843, Nubaria 1, Cairo 25, Cairo 5, Cairo 33 and Misr 3) was utilized to estimate different sources of genetic variability and other derived parameters, seed yield and its components: pods, seeds and 100-seed weight. Analysis of parent and F2,s indicated that Giza 843 and Nubaria 1 were good combiners for number of branches, seed yield/plant and 100-seed weight. The parent Cairo 25 was good combiner for pods/plant, seeds/plant and seed yield/plant. High GCA/SCA ratios revealed the predominance of additive gene action in most cases. Thus, selection could be favored for improving these traits. The additive genetic variance (D) was highly significant for pods/plant, seed yield/plant and 100-seed weight indicating that additive effect is important in the inheritance of these traits. Therefore selection would be expected to be effective. The component of variation due to dominance effects (H1) was highly significant for all traits indicating the presence of dominance with asymmetrical gene distribution in the parental genotypes. All traits had high values of H1 and H2 than "D" except 100-seed weight indicating the important role of dominance genetic variance. Heritability estimates in narrow sense ranged from 0.01% in plant height to 42% for number of branches. Both additive and non-additive genetic variances played role in inheritance of different traits. Significant reciprocal-cross differences in F2 should impose direction of crossing in favor of plasmon effects. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-natal Clinic at General Hospital Argungu, Kebbi State Nigeria

I. Abdullahi, M. H. Yeldu, K. M. Hamid, A. Y. Saidu, F. Nafiu, U. K. Mustapha

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/33246

Hepatitis B virus infection is caused by Hepatitis B virus, and the virus can be transmitted from infected mother to her new born child during pregnancy. This research work was aimed at determining the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in General Hospital Argungu. 300 serum samples were assayed using Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) Rapid Test Strip manufactured by Lab ACON Hangzhou Biotest Biotech Co., Ltd. 38 (12.7%) of the participants have antibodies to HBV. From the research the highest prevalence of HBsAg was found among the age group 20 – 29 years and lowest among the age group of 30 – 39 years. 2nd trimester (4 – 6 months) had the highest prevalence rate of 11.3%, followed by 3rd trimester (7 – 9 months) with 1.3%, while the 1st trimester (1 – 3 months) had zero prevalence (0%). Those that shared sharp objects had the prevalence of 4.6%. Those that had blood transfusion had prevalence of 1.0% while those that are unvaccinated had the highest prevalence of 12.3%. The family type or status i.e. monogamy or polygamy, from the three hundred subjects screened, two hundred and thirty nine family type of the subjects were monogamous and sixty one were polygamous which represent 11.2% and 18.0% respectively. It was observed that fifty had primary education, two hundred and thirty six had secondary education, twenty had tertiary education and ninety four had informal education. Those that had secondary education had the highest prevalence of 7.0% while those with primary education have the least prevalence with 1.0%. This study shows that there are tendencies of vertical transmission from these infected mothers to their new born babies. It is therefore recommended that more studies with advance technology such as PCR should be encouraged and more research should be conducted on a large population in other states of the country so as to establish the endemicity of HBV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Cassava Mosaic Disease Related to Agro-ecosystem in Farmer’s Fields located in Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

M. Muengula-Manyi, A. Ngombo, A. Kalonji, P. Tshiendesha-Musokandu, S. Dekwize-Diakabi, R. Kayembe, N. Kalonji, D. Dianda, J. G. Kasongo, E. Tshibangu, P. Tshilenge-Djim, A. Kalonji-Mbuyi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/34302

Aim: To assess the Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) pressure by analyzing its incidence, severity and gravity, and to characterize agro-ecosystems where cassava farmers’ fields are established.

Place and Duration: The study was conducted in three different localities (Mvuazi, Ndembo and Pompage) in Kongo Central province, Democratic Republic of Congo, from June to December 2016. 

Methodology: One hundred and fifty farmers’ fields randomly selected were investigated during epidemiological survey, with 50 fields in each locality. In each field selected, 30 cassava plants randomly selected in a square of 10 m x 10 m were analyzed. The CMD incidence, severity and gravity were collected, and agronomic and environmental factors relative to cassava fields were analyzed.

Results: In general, CMD was observed in the three localities, with pressure depending upon to localities and fields. The distance between two neighboring fields could vary from 5 to 35 or even 50m. Pathological parameters show significant difference (P = .05) among fields for the same locality. The lowest pressure was recorded in Mvuazi locality (with 12.8% for incidence, score 2 for severity, and 15% for gravity), while the highest pressure was recorded in Pompage (with 20% for incidence, score 3 for severity, and 32% for gravity). Data recorded on agro-environmental factors show that farmers of the three localities used almost the same agricultural practices. Analysis of data reported suggest that the origin and the type of cassava material cuttings used can play a principal role in the propagation and development of CMD in most of cassava cultivation regions.      

Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that CMD was present in different localities surveyed, and its pressure varies among localities, and from one field to another for the same locality. Agricultural practices used by farmers can play an important role in the propagation of CMD in different regions of cassava cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aspects of the Biology of Silver Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) in Nwaniba River, Southeast Nigeria

I. K. Esenowo, A. A. A. Ugwumba, I. I. Umoh, A. B. Andem

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/34408

The Aspects of the Biology of the Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) were investigated from August to October 2015 in Nwaniba River, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A total of two hundred (200) specimens were analyzed for gut contents using Numerical and Frequency of Occurrence methods. The results revealed that the species feed on various food items ranging from plant origin to animal materials with dietary preference classified into eight major groups consisting of Crustaceans 39 (23.2%), Fish parts 26 (15.6%), Detritus 23 (13.7%), Plant parts 20 (11.9%), Undefined 20 (11.9%), Mollusca 19 (11.3%), Insects 13 (7.7%), and Nematodes 8 (4.7%) respectively. Of the 200 stomachs examined, 35 (17.5%) were empty stomachs, 80 (40%) had quarter-full stomachs, 50 (25%) had half-full stomachs, 13 (6.5%) had three quarter-full stomachs and 22 (11%) had full stomachs. The condition factor calculated for the species varied during the studies period with a mean value of 0.77 in August, 0.72 in September and 0.73 in October. Based on the food items isolated in the gut, the species could be considered as an Omnivorous fish in Nwaniba River. Further research should be done to ascertain the food preference of the species over a longer period of time covering both wet and dry season. This will enable definite conclusion on its food preference.