Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-insecticidal and Grain Protectant Activities of Mixed Powder of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amydalina against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Calabar, Nigeria

A. I. Nta, B. E. Agbo, N. S. Udoekong

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/33500

The bio-insecticidal and grain protectant activities of mixed powder of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina upon Callosobruchus maculatus was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria during the dry season (August to November) of 2015. The mortality rate of cowpea weevil treated V. amygdalina: O. gratissimum at 100: 0 concentrations were 17.0%, 27.0%, and 47.0% for a period of 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs, respectively. Concentrations 0:100 gave a percentage mortality of 47.0%, 67.0% and 73.0% at 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs, respectively. 80: 20 and 20: 80 concentrations gave 33.3% and 47.0% at 24hrs and 48hrs, but 80:20 gave 47.0% while 20:80 gave 57.0% mortality rate at 72hrs. 50: 50 concentrations gave 73.0%, 77.0%, and 80.0% mortality rate at 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs, respectively. The 0: 0 concentrations gave 0.0%, 3.3%, and 7.0% mortality rate at 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs, respectively. The effect on the oviposition of cowpea weevil revealed that the mean value of eggs laid on seeds were 5.0, 2.3, 3.3, 2.8, 1.0 and 7.0 for 100:0; 0:100; 80:20; 20:80; 50:50 and 0:0 concentrations, respectively. The effects of mixture of V. amygdalina: O. gratissimum powder on the emergence of cowpea weevil gave a mean value of adult weevil emergence as 5.3, 3.0, 5.0, 3.3, 1.3 and 8.0 for 100:0, 0:100, 80:20, 20:80, 50:50 and 0:0 concentrations respectively. Mixed powder of V. amygdalina: O. grattisimun with 50:50% concentrations conferred the highest bio-insecticidal potency against C. macullatus during the experimental investigation. This was evident from the fact that treatment with V. amygdalina: O. grattisimum (50:50%) concentration attained 80.0% mortality at 72hrs of exposure, which was followed by V. amygdalina: O. grattisimum (0: 100%) concentration with 73.0% mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Studies on Heteracris littoralis (Rambur) Treated with Silica Nano-particles / Challenger Formulation

Aziza F. Sharaby, Amany R. Ebeid, Mohamed A. Gesraha

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/33780

Aim: Local diatomaceous earth (Silica nano-particles) and commercial pesticide (Challenger 36% SC) formulation was tested against alfalfa grasshopper, Heteracris littoralis (Rambur, 1838) (Orthopetra: Acrididae) under laboratory conditions.

Study Design: Histological study for alimentary tract using light microscope.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pests and Plant Protection, National Research Centre, Egypt- 2016-2017.

Methodology: Fourth instar nymphs of H. littoralis were taken from laboratory culture reared on semi-artificial diet [1] for the experiments. The nymphs were fed on diet mixed with 1% concentration of Silica nano-particles/Challenger formulation. The tissue specimens of the alimentary canal were dissected in 0.9% NaCl solution and fixed in Bouin's solution for 24 hours [2] then dehydrated in ascending alcoholic series and cleared in Xylen for few seconds, and then specimens were infiltrated in three changes of paraffin wax each lasted 20 minutes. With Ehrlich's acid haematoxylin and alcoholic eosin. The stained sections were dehydrated, cleared and mounted using D.P.X. For microscope examination.

Results: The Silica nano-particles induced great irregularity or deformity in the alimentary tract, that leading finally to death. All parts of the alimentary tract were affected by silica treatment (fore-gut, mid-gut and associated gastric caeca and hind-gut).

Conclusion: Histological changes were observed as a result of Silica effect on the enzymes and the physiology of the treated insect. So, it could be concluded that Silica nano-particles may be used through the integrated pest management programme against H. littoralis by spray on the plants or as a food bait traps.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Palm Oil Mill Effluent on Soil Microflora and Fertility in Calabar – Nigeria

M. L. Iyakndue, A. A. Brooks, A. A. Unimke, B. E. Agbo

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/33015

In the present study, an agricultural soil artificially amended with different concentrations of palm oil mill effluent was analysed to determine its impact on the soil microflora and other properties such as pH, organic matter, electrical conductivity, and mineral elements. In the polluted soils, the total heterotrophic bacteria, total heterotrophic fungi and total heterotrophic actinomycetes decreased significantly (p≤0.5) with increase in the concentration of the pollutant. The total heterotrophic bacteria and total heterotrophic fungi showed significant reduction (p≤0.5) with increase in the duration of the pollution while total heterotrophic actinomycetes showed no significance difference (p≥0.5) over the duration of pollution. Suspected bacterial isolates from the polluted soils were Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp. Flavobacterium sp., Serratia sp., Proteus sp., while the suspected fungal isolates were Mucor spp., Penicillum spp., Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus spp. There were significant differences (p≤0.5) in soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, available phosphorus and base saturation of the polluted soil and that of the control while the values of sodium, calcium, exchangeable acidity and electrical conductivity of the polluted soil did not show significant difference with that of the control. There was rather a steady increase which was not statistically different from the control with increase in concentration of the pollutant. The results of this study revealed that soil polluted with little quantities of palm oil mill effluent could enhance microbial proliferation and thus, increase soil fertility, while a heavy application inhibits the same.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Parasites Infection of Resident Fish Species in a Tropical Reservoir

J. A. Oso, E. O. Idowu, A. A. Adewumi, D. O. Longe

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/33229

This study detected, identified and determined the incidence of parasites present in and on Clarias gariepinus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii in Ero reservoir, a tropical reservoir situated in Ikun-Ekiti, Nigeria. Fish species were randomly obtained from fishermen at the reservoir during the rainy season. Out of 55 fish samples examined, 17 (30.9%) fishes were invaded. 11(20.0%) were infected by Protozoans (Ciliates and Flagellates) and 6(10.9%) were infected by Metazoans (Myxosporean and Nematode). Parasitological examination of the 55 fish samples showed 41.2% incidence for C. gariepinus, 17.6% for S.  galilaeus, 29.4% for O. niloticus, and 11.8% for T. zillii. A total of 59 parasites were recovered comprising 36 protozoans and 23 metazoans. Parasite infections were found on the skin, fins, gills, intestine, liver and kidney. Total number and percentage of parasites recovered were tabulated in relation to their host prevalence and location of specificity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ovarian Steroids on Osteoblast Viability and Mineralization

L. F. C. Brancaglião, A. L. O. Bonfá, J. E. S. Lemos, N. F. Rocha, V. M. Gonçalves, L. H. Montrezor

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/34036

Understanding the interactions between bone metabolism and ovarian and plasma changes induced by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is essential for the comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms involving these organs. Ovarian steroids are associated with activities related to bone synthesis and resorption. Knowledge of the effects of the main ovarian steroids on the viability of osteoblasts in culture, mimicking the conditions of PCOS, can assist in understanding the functions of the cells in this endocrine disease that affects more than 10% of women of reproductive age. This work evaluated the viability of undifferentiated and differentiated osteoblasts in an osteogenic medium, together with phosphatase activity and mineralization of the extracellular matrix. The cells were cultured for different periods of time in the presence of varied concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and the combination of all three hormones. The influence of the presence of fetal bovine serum in the culture medium was also determined. The results suggested that the culture technique employed could be used for in vitro studies of the effects of polycystic ovary syndrome on osteoblastic activities, before and after cell differentiation.