Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus in Hemodialysis Patients: A Prevalence Study from Dialysis Centers in El-Beyda and Almarj- Libya

Marfoua S. Ali, Hanan S. Moftah, Souad A. M. Moftah

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/31912

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections represent significant public health issues globally. These infection is a lead cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Yet, little research has focused on the morbidity measures of these serious disorders in low and middle income countries.

Aims: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among HD patients in El-Beyda and Almarj cities. All the patients who underwent hemodialysis from January 2013 to December 2016 were included in the study. Patients of all age groups were tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies by third regeneration linked immunoassay (ELISA).

Results: In overall, 645 patients by end of 2016, 360 males (55.8%) and 285 females (44.2%) hemodialysis HD patients attending were recruited. The majority of the patients were found to be  >50 years of age (41.1%) followed by 31-40 years (22.5%) and thereafter in 41-50 years (18%) and lowest prevalence was observed in the age group of <20 years (8.1%). Seroconversion rates were (0.3%, 0.5%) for hepatitis B surface antigen and (1.24%, 8.68%), for anti-HCV antibodies in El-Beyda and Almarj respectively. Patients on maintenance HD units in couple of cities have a high incidence and prevalence of HCV infection comparison to HBV infection. Additionally, patients on maintenance HD units in El-Beyda have a low levels of infection comparison to HD unit in Almarj.

Conclusion: Urgent action is required to improve infection control measures in HD centres and to reduce dependence practically on blood transfusions which consider main reasons for infection in both units.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Characteristics of Indigenous Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Fed on a Natural and an Alternative Prey

Akram Alghamdi, Samy Sayed

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/32296

Studying of prey suitability for indigenous insect predators is very important factor for their mass rearing in the future. We tested the effects of two different prey species on the preimaginal stages parameters and adult bionomics of the indigenous predator, Chrysoperla carnea under laboratory conditions. These prey species are the aphid; Aphis fabae as a natural prey and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) as a factitious prey. The results showed that prey species had a significant effect on preimaginal development times, survival and fecundity. In contrast, adult longevity, egg hatchability and egg duration were not significantly affected by prey species. Eggs of E. kuehniella led to high survival rates, short development times for the preimaginal stages and high fecundity. These results would be helpful for mass rearing of C. carnea as an indigenous predator in Saudi Arabia and help in designing integrated pest management programs involving its use as a biocontrol agent of aphids on various crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritive Compounds Contained In Some Mucilaginous Plants Consumed In Côte d'Ivoire

Olivier Yapo Assi, Daouda Sidibe, Rachel Rebecca Assa, Ysidor N’guessan Konan, Ysidor N’guessan Konan, Adama Coulibaly, Henri Godi Biego

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/32377

Aims: To assess the nutritive compounds contents in different edible parts of nine mucilaginous food plants (MFPs) from Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design: MFPs edible parts were dried and nutritive compound analyzed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biosciences Unit, at Felix Houphouet-Boigny University between January and December 2014.

Methodology: The acquirement of the plants has been done in 3 big regions (Tonkpi, Bélier and District of Abidjan) of Côte d’Ivoire. To achieve this study, 100 kg of fresh fruits and masts of the species I. gabonensis, I. wombolu and B. mannii have been collected to the farmer in the region of the Tonkpi. A same quantity of leaves, calyx and flowers of B. buonopozense has been harvested in the region of Belier. As well as 100 kg of leaves of C. olitorius, M. arboreus, A. digitata and varieties tomi and koto of A. esculentus have been collected to the Gouro market in the District of Abidjan. So a biochemical characterization of the kernels (IG and IW), leaves (CO, AD, MA and BB), fruits (BM and AE) and flowers (BB) has been achieved.

Results: The results reveal richness in nutritive components of the studied food plants. The ash contents are consisted between 2.5±0.14% and 10.70±0.07% and are raised more in the leaves and the fruits of A. esculentus. The leaves, flowers and fruits also expressed the best concentrations in polyphenols of 116.40±2.11 to 521.76±5.13 mg/100 g DM. These same parts showed the best concentrations in proteins especially leaves (10.06±0.85% to 12.69±0.64% DM). The mucilaginous food plants provided some contents in carbohydrates varying from 10.33±0.04% to 60.64±0.71%. The concentrations in lipids are generally weak below 6% but very strong (55.79±1.45% and 75.99±2.25%) in the kernels of Irvingia spp, providing thus big calorific value (567.90±4.07 and 689.98±1.41 kcal/100 g DM). The fibers are recovered in important quantity in the leaves of all studied species (28.5±0.55% to 36.5±0.42%).

Conclusion: MFPs valorization could contribute to ensure the nutritional safety to Ivorian populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Elevation Changes of Morphometric Traits Structure in Pterostichus montanus Motch. (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

Raisa Sukhodolskaya, Tatyana Ananina

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/32748

We studied morphometric variation in ground beetles populations inhabiting plots at different altitudes of the Barguzin mountain transect (Russia, Buryatia). Sample size was 1200 specimen, six measurements were analyzed. Beetles size did not differ in altitude gradient. Multivariate analysis showed that population structure was not the same at different altitudes with variation in factors loading on the studied traits. PCA extracted two factors that affected body size variation in species studied in altitudinal gradient: the first – climatic conditions of the shore (coast) and high altitudes (false subbald and high mountains belts, correspondingly), the second – altitude gradient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Two Different Marine Red Algae Species Collected from Quseir, the Red Sea, Egypt

Ibraheem B. M. Ibraheem, Basma E. Abd Elaziz, Abeer Moawad, Hossam M. Hassan, Waleed A. Mohamed, Neveen Abdel-Raouf

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/32964

Aims: This study aimed to analyze the bioactivities of two different species of marine red algae crude extracts; Acanthophora spicifera (M.Vahl) Borgese and Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C.Agardh.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Quseir city, Red Sea, Egypt at (April, 2015), extraction and biological study; pharmacognosy department, summer 2015, Kasr El-Eini Teaching Hospitals, Cairo University, Egypt.

Methodology: The crude extract screened against some human pathogenic bacteria including ten Gram positive, ten Gram negative strains and ten unicellular and filamentous fungi. The antimicrobial activity was done through the agar well diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory effect of the crude extract on inflammed liver cells was evaluated by measuring SOD, MDA, catalase, GSH, Il-6 and TNF-alpha in the serum of treated Wister albino rats compared to positive and negative control groups.

Results: The antimicrobial study showed that both Acanthophora spicifera and Digenea simplex extracts showed the highest zone of inhibition against Streptococcus agalactiae with clear zones (22.5±0.58 mm and 23.1±0.58 mm) as Gram positive bacteria compared to Ampicillin as positive control. But with Gram negative bacteria Acanthophora spicifera showed highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.3±2.1 mm) and Digenea simplex showed highest zone of inhibition against Serratia marcescens (24.1±0.58 mm) compared to Gentamycin as positive control. Finally, the effect of both Acanthophora spicifera and Digenea simplex against fungi showed highest zone of inhibition (23.8±0.63 mm and 22.4±2.1 mm) against Geotricum candidum. On the other hand results revealed that all methanol extracts had equally potent anti-inflammatory effects on inflammated liver rats as it observed significant decreased in the levels of SOD, Catalase and GSH. Also observed that significant increase in the inflamed liver state of MDA, IL-6 and TNF-Alpha After treatment of inflamed liver rats with crude extracts observed that the difference in the parameters levels relatively equal to the normal control results.

Conclusion: Acanthophora spicifera (M.Vahl) Borgeseand Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C.Agardh might be a good source of anti-inflammatory and antibacterial compounds activity.