Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Smoke-drying on the Nutritional Quality and Microbial Load of Apple Watersnail (Lanistes libycus) in Ikpoba River, Edo-State

K. Omoruyi, G. W. Ebhodaghe

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/31638

The study was aimed at determining the effects of smoke-drying on the nutritional quality and microbial load of Apple Watersnail (Lanistes libycus) from Ikpoba River, Edo State. Thirty two (32) Lanistis libycus specimens were bought from a fish seller and taken to Faculty of Agriculture Laboratory where the microbial loads of the Apple Watersnail were analysed using Potato Dextrose Agar and Nutrient Agar for fungi and bacteria, respectively. A total of 25 isolates were obtained and identified as bacteria and fungi. The number of bacteria counts (9.3 X 103 cfu/gm) and fungi counts (18.0 X 103 cfu/gm) in sample A (fresh Lanistes libycus) was higher than that of sample B (smoke-dried Apple Watersnail) which were (5.0 X 103 cfu/gm) and (5.0 X 103 cfu/gm) for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The highest bacteria counts occurred in Sample C (44.3 X 103 cfu/gm) Apple Watersnail after two months of storage, at ambient temperature and the highest fungi counts occurred in Sample C Apple Watersnail after two months of storage (42.7 X 103 cfu/gm). After smoke drying, the sample was high in percentage crude protein and ash contents which suggested that smoke drying enhanced the nutritional value of the sample. The study also revealed that the Apple Watersnail from Ikpoba River was highly contaminated with microorganisms but when processed and stored at 25-29°C, the micro-organism reduced and prolonged shelf-life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some New Information on Ants’ Cemeteries Organization

Marie-Claire Cammaerts

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/32012

Aim: We aimed to explain how ants manage to deposit nestmate corpses outside their nest.

Methodology: We first summarized a previous study of ours dealing with the subject, and reported others carried out in the meantime by other researchers. Then, we executed a new experimental work on the ant Myrmica ruginodis. We studied the ethological effects of chemical material present at cemetery sites and examined the tracks made by ants going to and from cemeteries. This gave the explanation of how and why ants transport and deposit corpses far from their nests, collectively or individually, and form piles or not.

Results: An ant loading a corpse moves away from its nest, discontinuously depositing some of the contents of its Dufour gland. It drops the corpse far from the nest, moves slowly, even rests for a time, and lays down some of its poison gland. Such deposits induce klinokinesis in nestmates and consequently incite nestmates carrying a corpse to approach this place moving slowly, sinuously, and finally to drop their load there, which leads to the formation of piles. When the ant has dropped the corpse, it returns to its nest while depositing, over a short distance, the trail of pheromone issued from its poison gland. Any ants can act similarly and individually. Corpses can thus be piled or laid down anywhere far from the nest.

Conclusion: The results of our experiment agree with other researchers’ studies, and explain the apparition of piles of corpses, as well as the presence of corpses at places far from the nest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey on Nutrition and Feeding Practices of Fish by Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria

B. S. Aliu, J. O. Afolabi, M. Egwenomhe, A. C. Esume

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/31605

This study was carried out to examine the feeding practices adopted by fish farmers in Ondo State Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives were to describe their socio economic characteristics, evaluate the availability of feeds and feed ingredients in the study area, identify the type of fish farming practices and characteristics in Ondo state, determine the frequency and ingredients used to feed fish and identify the constraints to efficient use of feeds in the study area. A multi-stage sampling method was used to select fish farmers in the study area. The study was conducted using well-structured questionnaires, administered to respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that majority of the fish farmers in the area were male (81.1%). Most of them were married (62.5%) and they were mostly tertiary education certificate holders (52.2%). Higher proportions of the farmers were of the age range of between 30 and 40 years (43.3%); and most of them were full time fish farmers (57.8%). Most of the fish farmers cultured Clarias gariepinus (93.3%). Substantial number of the fish farmers use commercial feed rather than local feed. (78.8%), with majority of the fish farmers making preference of earthen ponds over other culture facilities (37.9 Significant percentage (37.5%) of the farmers used maize while those that use fishmeal accounted for 88.2% as the source of energy and protein respectively in compounding farm-made feed. Some of the major constraints faced by the fish farmers  was high cost of feed (34.4%), which was ranked first, followed by scarcity of ingredients (13.3%), inadequate funding (11,1%) then high cost of  transportation (1,1%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Synchronization of Estrus Using Ovsynch Protocol and Fixed Timed Artificial Insemination (FTAI) in Indigenous Dairy Buffaloes: An Effective Buffalo Breeding Program in Bangladesh

Susanto Kumar Rabidas, Md. Royhan Gofur

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/31950

Background: Estrus synchronization may be a tool to overcome silent estrus and breeding seasonality, the major factors limit the reproductive efficiency of indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. The present study was carried out to evaluate estrus responses and conception rate in response to the Fixed Time Artificial Insemination (FTAI) of indigenous buffaloes (n=97) with Ovsynch protocol.

Materials and Methods: Buffaloes (morning and evening groups) were synchronized in three different seasons of Bangladesh. Estrus was synchronized according to Ovsynch protocol              (a sequence of GnRH - PGF2α - GnRH treatments). Each animal received a single artificial insemination with frozen semen from Mediterranean buffalo bulls at 18 to 20 hours (fixed timed AI) following second GnRH injection. Diagnosis of conception was performed by real-time transrectal ultrasonography using an ultrasound scanner on Day 40 post-AI.

Results: Ovsynch treatment induced the estrus signs in all buffaloes. The conception rate was 56.70% (55/97) and pregnancy rate was 31.96% (31/97) in indigenous river type buffaloes of Bangladesh. Though the difference of conception and pregnancy rate was insignificant (p˃0.05) among seasons, the conception rate was varied from 44% to 64.87% and the pregnancy rate varied from 28% to 35.14% in different seasons of Bangladesh. The conception rate was also varied depending on the time of administration of hormones as well as the time of insemination. The conception rate was the highest (64.87%) in late autumn (Hemonto) season when the temperature was low (17-22°C) and the higher in morning group (61.54%).

Conclusion: The Ovsynch protocol effectively synchronized estrus in indigenous river type buffaloes with a reasonable conception rates after FTAI. Estrus synchronization and FTAI could be applied for effective breeding program of buffalo in Bangladesh, though further studies are needed to increase the conception rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition and Nutritional Analysis of Seeds and Testas of Dacryodes edulis and Garcinia kola

R. U. B. Ebana, U. O. Edet, U. M. Ekanemesang, G. M. Ikon, E. B. Umoren, N. W. Ntukidem, O. E. Etim, S. Sambo, N. U. Brown

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2017/31159

Dacryodes eludis and Garcinia kola are two plants amongst others that are rightly regarded as underutilized. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the seeds and testas of G. kola and    D. eludis for the presence of nutrients, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients. The analyses were done using standard techniques and the resulting replicate readings subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for significance. The results of the proximate composition revealed that both seeds and testas of the studied plants were very rich in nutrients. The moisture content was more in the testas than the seeds of both plants but was highest in the testa of D. eludis (41.00±0.01 g/100 g dry matter). The ash and protein contents were almost similar in both plants. Fat and fibre contents were higher in the G. kola while the testa of D. eludis had more carbohydrate (71.88±0.02 g/100 g dry matter). Consistently, G. kola had more vitamins than D. eludis. However, the most abundant vitamin was B which ranged from 213.07 to 224.70 (mg/100 mL) while the least in both plants was vitamin E that ranged from 2.08 to 3.14 (mg/100 mL). Mineral analysis showed the presence of minerals such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and P in G. kola and K, Ca, Mg, P and N for D. eludis.  Anti-nutrients analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanic acid, soluble and total oxalate, and phytate with G. kola having the highest concentrations of all the anti-nutrients.  Analysis of replicate readings for all examined parameters showed significance (p< 0.05). There is a need to further studies aimed at their utilization in human and livestock nutrition and industry.