Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Human Infecting Geohelminths in Soil Found around Refuse Dumpsites in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, South-South, Nigeria

Chinwe Nwadiuto Eze, Owhoeli Ovutor, Omo Oweh

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2016/30179

Background: This study was carried to evaluate the prevalence of geohelminthes in soils found around refuse dumpsites in Emohua, Rivers State, South South, Nigeria and its public health significance.

A total of 240 soil samples were collected randomly from soils found around refuse dumpsites in (Rumuakande, Rumuche, Mgbuitanwo, and Isioducommunites) Emouha Local Government Area. Sixty samples each were collected from each community between July to September.               

Methods: Using centrifugal flotation method, soil samples were analysed to determine the presence of geohelminths. Soil parameters also examined were soil texture, colour and pH.

Results: One hundred and twenty-one (50.4%) of the soil samples were found to be positive with human geohelminth eggs or larva, with Ascaris lumbricoides accounting for 58 (24.2%), Strongyloides spp. 34(14.1%), Ancylostoma duodenale 16(6.7%), and Trichuris trichiura 13(5.4%) which was statistically significant (P>.05). From the four communities sampled, Mgbuitanwo had prevalence of 36(15%), Isiodu 34(14.2%), Rumuche 26(10.8%), and Rumuakande with 25(10.4%). The prevalence rate in each of the communities was statistically significant (P>.05). Results equally showed loamy soil with mean 2.8 ± 1.1 S.D, sandy soil mean 1.7 ± 1.1 S.D, and clay soil mean 0.04 ± 0.3 S.D. Black soil had total mean 1.7 ± 1.6 S.D, and brown soil with mean 2.2 ± 1.8 S.D. Result from pH reading was mean 6.3 ± 0.6.

Conclusion: People who scavenge should well kitted to avoid risk of being infected by any of the observed geohelminth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Systematic Composition, Life Forms and Chorology of Parklands of Commune of Mayahi, Niger West Africa

Moussa Soulé, Ibrahima Djibo Bassirou, Ado Adamou Matalabi, Saadou Mahamane

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2016/30473

Botanical assessment plays an important role in managing and conserving phytodiversity. This study tried to determine the systematic composition, life forms, and chorology of parklands in the commune of Mayahi in Niger. We used quadrat method based on systematic sampling approach to inventory vegetation within the parklands in September 2013. The floristical analysis revealed that 230 species and 139 genera distributed in 48 families were recorded. This showed that the parklands are floristically diverse in biodiversity. But the most represented are Poaceae (16.02%) followed by Fabaceae (12.12%), Caesalpiniaceae (6.06%) and Mimosaceae (5. 63%). This showed that the legume species are numerically the important species of the parklands of the commune of Mayahi. The Shannon Weaver Diversity Index (H’) calculated based on 56 plots was 2.82 bits. Further, the analysis of life forms revealed that therophyte (57.82%) and phanerophyte (29%) are the dominant life forms in the parklands of the commune of Mayahi. Therefore, the phytoclimate of the commune of Mayahi is therophanerophytic. Furthermore, the dominance of therophyte explains the adjustment of the flora to water balance of the area. Added to that, the predominance of the phanerophyte is an indicator of the presence woody species and the good level of management of the parklands by the farmers. Moreover, the chorological analysis showed that there were predominance Sudano-Zambezians species (SZ), 53.70% and Guineo-Congolese-Sudano-Zambezians (GC-SZ) 31.02% in the flora of the parklands. The present study recommends further research that touches the impact of anthropogenic activities on the dynamics of the parklands in the commune of Mayahi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological Analysis of Surface Water Obtained from Uke River in Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

J. O. Ihuma, L. Y. Adogo, T. D. Malgwi, J. I. Maikenti, A. Z. Koggie

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2016/30518

Aim: To determine the bacteriological properties of the surface water obtained from Uke River.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Uke Community, Karu LGA, Nasarawa state and the Department of Biological sciences, Bingham University, Karu, between March and April 2016.

Materials and Methods: Water samples were collected randomly from five points at the Uke River for five weeks. The total heterotrophic bacteria count, fecal coliform count and total coliform count were used to determine bacterial contamination. Biochemical tests and gram reaction was used to identify the bacterial isolates.

Results: Six bacterial genera which include Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus spp, Escherichia spp, Pseudomonas spp, Enterococcus spp and Klebsiella spp were isolated from the water samples. Escherichia coli had the highest frequency of 23(43%). The mean total heterotrophic count, total coliform count and fecal coliform count were 2.3× 102, 2.4×102, and 2.6×102 respectively.

Conclusion: The bacteriological analysis of the surface water indicates the presence of bacteria which suggests the water is not fit for consumption without proper processing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Management of Root Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita through Organic Amendment on Solanum lycopersicum L.

Mohd Asif, Amir Khan, Moh Tariq, Mansoor A. Siddiqui

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2016/30739

Aims: To evaluate the nematicidal potential of wild spinach powder in combination with fresh chopped leaves of different plants viz., Indian mallow, Mexican poppy, Ivy gourd, Trailing eclipta, Wild eggplant and Black pigweed against Meloidogyne incognita on plant growth characters of tomato cv. K-21. 

Place and Duration of Study: A glasshouse pot experiment was carried out in the Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.

Methodology: A mixture of soil and organic manure was prepared in the ratio 3:1. The pots were treated with fresh chopped leaves of different plants viz., Indian mallow, Mexican poppy, Ivy gourd, Trailing eclipta, Wild eggplant and Black pig weed applied 50 g of fresh chopped leaves of plants were applied combined with seed powder 10 g of seed powder of Black nightshade”.

Results: Combined application of wild spinach powder along with the fresh chopped leaves of all the plants suppressed pathogenic effect of nematode and thereby resulted in significant reduction in Meloidogyne incognita infestation and population density of Meloidogyne incognita in soil. The highest reduction in Meloidogyne incognita infestation was reported in plants employed with 10 g of wild spinach powder combined with 50 g of Mexican poppy leaves. Plants applied 10 g of wild spinach powder combined with 50 g of Mexican poppy leaves were the best followed by 50 g of Trailing eclipta, 50 g of Wild eggplant, 50 g of Black pigweed, 50 g of Indian mallow, 50 g of Ivy gourd in the descending order. However the lowest reduction was recorded with the application           10 g of wild spinach powder plus 50 g of fresh chopped Ivy gourd. Organic additives of wild spinach powder along with the fresh chopped leaves would work for sustainable management by increasing the nutrient status of the soil which further enhances the plant growth.

Conclusion: The application of Mexican poppy, Trailing eclipta and Wild eggplant in combination with wild spinach powder are quite efficient alternatives of chemical nematicides for the Meloidogyne incognita management and yield enhancement. Although the utilization of chopped leaves of Indian mallow and Ivy gourd along with wild spinach powder is not potentially active replacement of synthetic nematicides however further characterization is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Constituents of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle. Collected from Unpolluted and Polluted Water Sources

V. Mary Kensa, R. Neelamegum

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2016/30954

The investigation was carried out to determine the chemical components of H. verticillata using Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. GC/MS analysis of ethanol extract of H. verticillata revealed the existence of five compounds in samples collected from polluted water and five compounds in samples collected from unpolluted water. Out of ten compounds, sesquiterpene compound (Coryan-17-ol, 18,19-di dehydro-10-methoxy-acetate), Steroid compound (Ergost -5-en-ol, 22, 23-dimethyl acetate), plasticizer compound (1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid butyl octylester), Linoleic compound (10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester), Stearic acid (Pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl, methyl ester) and Phytol (Diterpene compound) have anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic and enhances the immunity. The results of this study offer a platform of using H. verticillata as herbal alternative for various diseases.