Open Access Short Research Article

First Record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) as a Potential Facultative Parasitoid of Apis mellifera in India

Pranab Debnath, Debashis Roy

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/46210

Aims: In 2016, suddenly a pile of dead honey bees, Apis mellifera with unfolded wings had been noticed adjacent to the Langstroth bee boxes on the daily interval for a consecutive period of 2-3 months. The present study was an attempt to investigate the reason for this abnormal death.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India between May 2016 and February 2018.

Methodology: Forty-eight numbers of sick bees with stiff-unfolded wings and 50 healthy bees were collected and maintained at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity. Maggots developed in the unfolded winged bees and adult flies emerged from pupae were examined. Duration of larval and pupal emergence was recorded at a fixed atmospheric condition. Relative mortality and parasitization rate of A. mellifera was also investigated for a period of one year.

Results: Parasitoid larvae emerged from the stiff-unfolded winged dead bees were identified as being Megaselia scalaris and further observation revealed that the parasitized bees contained empty body cavities while; normal honey bees were found to be non-parasitized. Matured phorid maggots emerged from the dead honey bees on an average 6 days after collection with the range of 1-14 larvae per honey bee. Maximum 12 pupae per honey bee were found after 18 days of the collection with the emergence of adults at 22nd day. Infestation rate was highest in May and lowest in January.

Conclusion: From this study, M. scalaris can be considered as one of the facultative endo-parasitoids of A. mellifera and further research should be done about the impact of phorids in Indian commercial beekeeping.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Chemolithotrophic Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas to Toxicity of Organophoshphate and Pyrethroid Pesticides

J. O. Williams, L. B. Dilosi

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/45135

Aim: To investigate the response of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter species to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides.

Study Design: This study employs experimental design and statistical analysis of data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Studies: Soil samples were obtained from University Farm, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Samples were transported to the microbiology laboratory of Rivers State University immediately for microbiological and toxicity testing. Pesticides was gotten No.4 Ignatius Ajuru University Road, St. John Campus, Aba Road Port Harcourt. The toxicity testing was done for the period of 28 days at room temperature.

Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used: toxicity testing procedures were carried out by preparing a stock culture of the pesticide based on manufactures directions (8 ml into 1000 ml of distilled water) from which the concentrations used for this research work were obtained 0%, 3.125%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25% and 50% and tested on the soil samples for a period of  28 days. Samples were serially diluted and cultures were incubated at 35°C for 18 to 24 hours. LC50 was determined using SPSS version 2.0.

Results: The results indicate that logarithm mortality of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter species increases with increase toxicant concentration and exposure time for pyrethroid pesticide while decreases with increase toxicant concentration and exposure time for organophosphate pesticides. The median lethal concentration LC50   of the pesticides increases in the following order: (Note: the higher the LC50, the lower the toxic effect); pyrethroid pesticide on Nitrosomonas (53.1%) < organophosphate pesticide on Nitrosomona (47.9%), pyrethroid pesticide on Nitrobacter (53.5%) < organophosphate pesticide on Nitrobacter (47.5%).

Conclusion: The results revealed that different concentrations of the toxicants have both negative and positive effect on the survival rate of the test organisms which shows that the organophosphate pesticide can cause more harm to the environment affecting Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter species that play vital functions in nutrient fixation in the soil environment. While pyrethroid pesticides at appropriate concentrations can stimulate the growth of these organisms there by increasing the rate of nutrient fixation in the soil environment. But also, when these toxicants are misapplied they can cause harm to humans that would consume the crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of the Application of Sulphur Formulation on the Abundance and Activity of Insect Predators Naturally Existing in Marrow Fields

Mamdouh Maher Matter, Atef Abd El-Rahman Ali, Shahira Saad El-Din Marei, Ola Omar El-Fandary, Nagy Abdellatef Farag, Mohamed Ahmed Gesraha

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/45607

Aims: This work aims to explore the side effects of sulphur formulation (Sorell-98%) on two important beneficial insects to give the basis of sulphur impacts on them.

Study Design: Evaluation of the effects of sulphur formulation on some predators naturally occurred in open fields.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiment was carried out in Giza Governorate, Egypt, season 2016/2017.

Methodology: Sulphur formulation was applied to protect vegetable crops against some plant diseases and piercing sucking pests (aphis, whiteflies, thrips & mites). The experiment was undertaken in marrow fields (Cucurbita pepo L.). Two similar rectangle areas each area about 700 m2 were chosen. The first area was divided longwise into 2 halves, each half divided horizontally into 4 plots; where all agricultural practices were carried out as usual. Sorell-98% was applied at recommended rate 30 days post plantation. Similar plots at the 2nd area (check area) was chosen far enough (350 meters) from the treated one and similarly prepared as the treated one (but, without sulphur application). The average number of each natural enemy (Coccinella undecimpunctata & Chrysoperla carnea) per time interval and percent of increase and/or decrease in the population density were calculated. Fifty plants were inspected/plot/time interval in treated and untreated areas.

Results: Findings revealed that the least number of the prevailing predators’ adults was recorded at the treated plots 2 hours post treatment. In addition, the mean number of the recorded adults occurred in the untreated plots of the 1st area was increased significantly than that of the untreated 2nd area at 12, 48 hours and after one week post treatment.

Conclusion: Results clarify that, the intelligent handling of sulphur formulations in order to control some pests and plant diseases with minimal or no harmful effects towards the adult predators under investigation must be taken in consideration, thus, this could be more favourable to keep the environment clean and non-polluted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Lethality Effect and Morphometric Indices Alterations in Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Shapshooter

L. C. Ani, H. O. Nwamba, O. C. Ejilibe, E. I. Nnamonu

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/46104

Aim: The present study evaluated the lethality effect and morphometric indices alterations in Clarias gariepinus exposed to sharpshooter.

Study Design: This study employed experimental design and statistical analysis of data and interpretation.

Place and Duration of Studies: This study was carried out in Applied Biology Special Laboratory Agbani, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu State (ESUT), Enugu State Nigeria. It lasted thirty days.

Methodology: Physicochemical parameters of the sharpshooter mixed water was analysed using standard methods. The 96h LC50 value estimated by Probit analysis was 0.03 mgl-1. The sublethal concentrations of sharpshooter based on the 96h LC50 is 1/10th of 96h LC50, 0.01 mg/L, and 1/5th of 96h LC50 0.03 mg/L. The morphometric indices especially hepatosomatic index (HSI) and condition factor (K) were also estimated using standard methods.

Results: The physico-chemical parameters of the test water showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) compared with the control. Mortality caused by the pesticide increased with increase in concentration. Mortality rate increased with increase in concentration with the highest recorded 0.05 mgl-1 at 96h (90% (27 fishes out of 30 fishes). The safe levels determined for the pesticide showed some variations. Whereas there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between 0.01 mg/L treatments and control, 0.03 mg/L caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HIS compared with control. Similarly, sharpshooter treatment caused a duration dependent significant increase (p < 0.05) at day 15. The treatment with sharpshooter caused concentration and duration significant increase (p < 0.05) in condition factor (K) compared with control.

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that sharpshooter is toxic to Clarias gariepinus even at low concentrations. Therefore, the use of this pesticide in the environment especially farm lands and areas close to aquatic environment should be applied with caution to avoid the risk of contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence and Resistance Profile of Extended Spectrum Beta- Lactamase Escherichia coli from Inanimate Surfaces of Student Toilets

A. C. Chukwujekwu, O. E. Agbagwa

Asian Journal of Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJOB/2018/46352

Aim: The study was carried out to determine the occurrence and resistance profile of extended spectrum beta-lactamase E. coli from inanimate surfaces in public and private toilets in student lodge within the University of Port Harcourt Nigeria.

Study Design: The employs experimental design and data collection.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for a period of 9 months from December 2017 to August 2018 in the Medical Microbiology laboratory of the department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 105 swabs were swabbed from floors, seats and door handles of the 6 toilets, the isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods. The positive cultures of E. coli were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Gram negative disk by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected using several combinations of cephalosporin disks with clavulanic acid disks.

Results: Out of the bacteria identified from the swabbed area 33% (35 isolates) were identified as E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed high resistance of the isolates to Cefuroxime, Gentamicin, Cefixime, Augmentin, Ceftazidime, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin. but were more susceptible to Nitrofurantoin. Ninety-five (95) % of isolated E. coli was resistant to at least resistant 3-5 antibiotics. The ESBL production of the isolated E. coli was noted from seats of both public and private toilets with 67% respectively than the floors with 20% and 33%. This study reveals ESBL producing E. coli can occur in large numbers on surfaces which users of toilets readily contact. Conclusion: Efforts should be made in monitoring the excessive use of antibiotics as these contributes to the resistance ability of the organism and also, daily cleaning and disinfection in conjunction with a regular hygiene service are recommended to prevent the spread multidrug resistant strains and ESBL producing E. coli.