Asian Journal of Biology 2022-08-08T06:00:57+00:00 Asian Journal of Biology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Asian Journal of Biology&nbsp;(ISSN: 2456-7124)</strong>&nbsp;is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJOB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Behavioural Toxicity of a Combined Oilfield Chemicals on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Burchell 1822) 2022-07-18T05:40:33+00:00 I. C. Davies B. Uedeme-Naa <p>The toxicity of the combination of xylene and diesel at a 50:50 ratio on the African catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>) was investigated using a static bioassay for 96hrs. No significant difference (P&gt;0.05) was observed in the Physicochemical parameters of the experimental water after exposure for 24 hours among the different concentration gradients and the controlled unit. Although there was an increased variation along the concentration gradient observed after 96hours. The behavioral responses of the test fish from 24-96 hours of exposure show normal behavioral responses in the control. <em>C. gariepinus</em> exposed to 25 ml/l to 50 mg/l concentration of the toxicant showed normal behavior from 24 to 48 hours. Afterward, the fish that were active stopped swimming and remained static for a while in response to the sudden changes in the surrounding environment. Generally, fish exposed to higher concentrations such as 100 ml/l to 250 ml/l of the test chemicals showed progressive hyperventilation and abnormal behavior like gulping air, erratic swimming movement, very fast swimming, jumping, and displaying vigorous jerky movement suffocation, and loss of reflex. A faster operculum and tail beat movement was also observed with Spiraling. The behavioral responses increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) with an increase in concentration per time as compared to the control group of fish. The noticeable behavioural difference was recorded for the different concentrations of the test chemical. An eco-friendly chemical that is within the acceptable limits recommended by WHO and DPR should be used in well stimulation and cleaning for sustainable biodiversity and a healthy aquatic environment.</p> 2022-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bioherbicide Effect of Effluent from Processed Manihot esculentus Tubers 2022-07-25T05:51:23+00:00 M. M. Ganyam Anyaegbunam K. Zikora N. O. Omeje D. M. Atsembe Christian Nelson Ugwuoke C. Kemmeth Cosmas Samuel <p>Effluents from processed bitter cassava (<em>Manihot esculentus)</em> tubers as bioherbicide was applied on the leaves of Beans, Broom weed, Maize, and Itch grass and investigated. Quantitative and qualitative characterization of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) was done both in effluent and test soil. Mineral analysis using atomic absorption spectrum (AAS), cyanide quantification in the effluent, and quantification of chlorophyll (a and b) from the leaves of test plants (Beans, Broom weed, Maize, and Itch grass) were carried out. The result from the microbial characterization of effluent, test soil, and control soil revealed the effluent had the highest microbial load. The isolated bacteria were <em>Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus spp, Lactobacillus, </em>and <em>E. coli</em>. Test soil had 16.13% <em>Staphylococcus</em>, 9.68% <em>Bacillus spp</em>, 16.13% <em>Lactobacillus, </em>and 6.45% <em>E. coli</em>. The isolated fungi were <em>Saccharomyces</em>, <em>Mucor, </em>and <em>Aspergillus</em> in the effluent, while <em>Saccharomyces</em> and <em>Mucor</em> were in the test soil and only <em>Aspergillus</em> in the control soil.The fungal count revealed a high total viable count (TVC) in the effluent (7.0×10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/ml) followed by test soil (6.6×10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/ml) while control soil had the least (4.5%×10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/ml). Cyanide analysis of effluent revealed 1.0 mg/ml, while metal analysis revealed potassium (40.221 mg/kg), sodium (32.009 mg/kg), Manganese (0.057 mg/kg) and Copper (-0.004mg/kg).The chlorophyll(a and b) concentration expressed in µg/mlof the experimented plants (Beans, Broom weed, Maize, and Itchgrass) further revealed a significant (p≤0.05) decrease concerning the volume of effluent applied (50 ml and 25 ml).Dicotyledonous plants; beans (0.461 <u>+</u> 0.025 and 0.609 <u>+</u> 0.013chlorophyll (a) compared to a control of 7.698<u>+</u> 0.100.Chlorophyll(b) on the other hand revealed 5.507 <u>+</u> 0.141and 11.599 <u>+</u> 0.282 when compared with control of 16.426 <u>+</u> 0.016)<sup>. </sup>Broom weed (0.291 <u>+</u> 0.071 and 0.457 <u>+</u> 0.068 for chlorophyll (a) when compared to the control with 0.595 <u>+</u> 0.071 and 1.549<u>+</u>0.141 and 1.683<u>+</u>0.353 for chlorophyll(b) when compared to the control with 22.252 <u>+</u> 0.282. Other plants analyzed revealed various significant (p≤0.05) decreased levels of chlorophyll (a and b). All the results revealed this effluent may be selectively used as a potential bioherbicide especially when applied to the leaves.</p> 2022-07-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Farmers’ Knowledge of Insecticides Usage and Hazard in Some Selected Communities in Danko/Wasagu Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria 2022-08-08T06:00:57+00:00 H. A. Shindi S. Hamisu I. P. Aiki M. Dabo D. S. Senchi Y. B. Unashi M. M. Warah <p>A study was carried out to assess the farmer’s knowledge of insecticides usage and hazard in some selected communities in Danko/Wasagu Local Government Area of Kebbi State. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result revealed that the majority (69 percent) of the respondents were men, 53 percent of them were within the age range of 41 – 60 years, and 50 percent of them had a family size of 1-5 persons. Many of the respondents (36 percent) had one form of formal education or the other. Most of the respondents 62 percent got their farmland through inheritance. Results also revealed that the majority of the respondents (95 percent) are aware of insecticides, with 55 percent using them to spray their crops. Many respondents 96 percent used insecticides before; the majority of the respondents 75 percent used insecticides to control insect pests in their homes and farms. The findings revealed that the majority (91 percent) of the respondents were aware of insecticides hazard and 70 percent are aware of the health implication of these insecticides and result from the negative effect of insecticides revealed that a high proportion of 40 percent strongly agreed on the negative effect of insecticides. More so the majority 89 percent of respondents are aware of safety and precaution measures, and 82 percent agreed that the use of protective clothes during spraying is a safe and precaution measure. It is concluded that the majority of the farmers are aware of insecticides and their health hazards. It is recommended that farmers should be more sensitized about the danger of insecticides and when handling them proper care should be taken and should always use protective clothes during their application (spray) to protect themselves and avoid body contact.</p> 2022-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##