Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) on Biological Systems

Madhuri G. Pawar

Department of Zoology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Reymend Encily Martin *

Department of Zoology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Electromagnetic Field (EMF) is a natural phenomenon; however, anthropogenic activities have significantly shifted its equilibrium, leading to potential deleterious effects on biological systems. As technology becomes more integrated into daily life, the increased use of electronic devices has contributed to a rise in man-made EMF exposure. This exposure can affect biological systems on physiological and molecular levels, raising concerns about its potential effects on animal development, reproductive systems, and overall ecosystem health. The review explores the physiological effects of exposure to static, extremely low-frequency (ELF), and radiofrequency (RF) fields, analyzing how EMF impacts oxidative stress, reproductive physiology, cardiovascular function, brain and nervous system activity, and DNA/RNA integrity. It also acknowledges the emerging concern of EMF in aquatic environments, where underwater power supplies and extensive underwater cable networks are sources of EMF exposure that may affect marine and freshwater species. The potential effects on marine life include disruptions to migratory patterns, altered reproductive cycles, and changes in aquatic biodiversity. The review acknowledges that research on EMF has improved over time, but significant gaps and information remain. It emphasizes the need for immediate attention to address the challenges and opportunities in this field.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, Fenton reaction, physiology, biological systems

How to Cite

Pawar , M. G., & Martin , R. E. (2024). Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) on Biological Systems. Asian Journal of Biology, 20(6), 21–33. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajob/2024/v20i6412


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