Phytoremediation Indices of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Growing in Panteka Stream, Kaduna, Nigeria

Victoria Moltong Yilwa

Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, PMB 2109, Nigeria.

Nwankwo Cornelius Tochukwu *

Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, PMB 2109, Nigeria and b Department of Biotechnology, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, PMB 2109, Nigeria.

Emere Matthew Chika

Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, PMB 2109, Nigeria.

Adejo Peter Ojodale

Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, PMB 2109, Nigeria and Department of Biotechnology, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, PMB 2109, Nigeria.

Danfulloh Tundeno Barde

Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, PMB 2109, Nigeria and Department of Biotechnology, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, PMB 2109, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The aquatic environment is incessantly polluted by the release of high toxic concentrations of heavy metals which are bio-accumulative and persistent in nature. This investigation was conducted to assess the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) growing in Panteka stream, Kaduna where mechanic and farming activities are carried out. Having three sampling points (A, B and C) and pond water, where farming is predominant served as the control site (D) using phytoremediation indices. The root and shoot samples of E. crassipes grown at the sampling points (A, B, C) and the control were analyzed to determine heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The phytoremediation indices were calculated via bioaccumulation coefficient and translocation factor. The results showed that the root samples had higher accumulation of heavy metals than the shoot samples. During the analysis the heavy metal Zn was noted to be accumulated the highest in roots and shoots (335.32 ± 23.6 and 256.52 ± 30.82) mg/kg at sampling point B respectively. In this present analysis heavy metals were translocated efficiently and had bioaccumulation coefficient and translocation factor greater than one. Nickel had the highest bioaccumulation coefficient and translocation factor, and Zn had a translocation factor that was less than one across all samples. This implies that E. crassipes is a potential hyperaccumulator plant for phytoremediation.

Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, heavy metals, phytoremediation and phytoremediation indices

How to Cite

Yilwa, Victoria Moltong, Nwankwo Cornelius Tochukwu, Emere Matthew Chika, Adejo Peter Ojodale, and Danfulloh Tundeno Barde. 2023. “Phytoremediation Indices of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Growing in Panteka Stream, Kaduna, Nigeria”. Asian Journal of Biology 19 (3):21-31.


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