Main Article Content
The objective of the review is to update information on the recent state of the transmission of dracunculiasis. Dracunculiasis is an ancient debilitating disease that has been lingering among dwellers of rural communities in some neglected sub-tropical and tropical countries. The disease is transmitted through drinking water that has been infested with Cyclops, the intermediate host of D. medinensis. Guinea worm disease has neither medicine for cure nor vaccine for prevention but can be prevented using certain intervention strategies. Any person that lives in the affected localities and drinks from Cyclop-infested water bodies could be infected, irrespective of age, gender or social status. The disease cripples the economy of affected communities, as it reduces attendance to farm work and other occupations and renders students absent from schools, through incapacitation. Eradication of dracunculiasis has been targeted using health education, boiling of water before drinking, application of temephos (Abate) to drinking water sources, filtration of water before drinking and installation of boreholes for the endemic localities. Attempts for eradication of dracunculiasis had reached an impressive and significant level before the emergence of cases of non-human animal infections. This phenomenon has sustained transmission of the disease in a few African countries. Published articles in Pubmed, Medline, Google Scholar and DOAJ on Guinea worm elimination and eradication and those on animal infections with Guinea worm were reviewed using Google search engine between February and April 2020. Scale up of application of Abate to affected drinking water sources is recommended as the most reliable and sustainable intervention in highly neglected communities.
World Health Organization and Carter Center. Eradication of Guinea Worm Disease. Case Statement. Center-who-gw-case-statement 2020. Retrieved July 24; 2020.
Biswas G, Sankara DP, Agua-Agum J, Maiga A. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease): eradication without a drug or vaccine. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 2013;368:20120146.
Barry M. The tail end of Guinea worm-global eradication without a drug or a vaccine. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;2561-2564.
Ezeugwu SMC, Afocha EE, Ajayi MB. A review of global Guinea worm eradication: emphasis on the Nigerian situation. African Journal of Cellular Pathology. 2015;4:17-23.
World Health Organization. Eradicating guinea worm disease: the last painful steps; 1998. Retrieved July 24, 2020 from Available:http//www.who.ch/ctd.
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. Guinea Worm Disease; 2017. Available:https:/ncdc.gov.ng/disease/info/G, [Accessed 17-09-2020].
Morenikeji O, Asiatu A. Progress in dracunculiasis eradication in Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria: a case study. African Health Sciences. 2010;10(3):297-301.
Dowdle WR. The principles of disease elimination and eradication. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1998;76(2): 23-35.
Bodimeade C, Marks M, Mabey D. Neglected tropical diseases: elimination and eradication. Clinical Medicine. 2019;19(2):157-160.
Richards FO, Ruiz-Tiben E, Hopkins DR. Dracunculiasis eradication and the legacy of the small pox campaign: what’s new and innovative? What’s old and principled? Vaccine. 2011;29:86-90.
Aylward B, Hennessey KA, Zagaria N, Olive J, Cochi S. When is a disease eradicable? 100 years of lesson learned. American Journal of Public Health. 2000;90(10):1515-1520.
Watts SJ. Dracunculiasis in Africa. Its geographic extent, incidence and at risk population. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1987;37:119-125.
Roberts L. Battle to wipe out Guinea worm stumbles. Nature. 2019;74:157-158.
Garrett KB, Box EK, Cleveland CA, Majewska AA, Yabsley MJ. Dogs and the classic route of Guinea worm transmission: an evaluation of copepod ingestion. Scientific Reports. 2020;10:1430.
Blake MC. An overview of Guinean worm disease and analysis of its potential for global eradication by means of diagnostic assay development. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2020;4(1):1-6.
Cleveland CA, Eberhard ML, Thompson AT, Smith SJ, Zirimwabagabo H, Bringolf R. et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017;23(9):1590-1592.
Hopkins DR, Withers PC. Sudan’s war and eradication of dracunculiasis. The Lancet. 2002;360:21-22.
Yibi MS. Elimination of Guineaworm disease in South Sudan through multidisciplinary actions. South Sudan Medical Journal. 2018;11(2):44-46.
Eberhard ML, Yabsley MJ, Zirimwabagabo H, Bishop H, Cleveland CA, Maerz JC. et al. Possible role of fish and frogs as paratenic hosts of Dracunculus medinensis, Chad. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2016;22(8):1428-1430.
Djidina MR, Guialoungou H, Dono BB, Ngarhor N, Padjaina M, Biswas G. et al. Renewed transmission of dracunculiasis, Chad. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report. 2011;60:744-748.
Molyneux D, Sankara DP. Guinea worm eradication: progress and challenges – should we beware of the dogs? Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2017;11(4):10005495. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd. 0005495.
World Health Organization. Dracunculiasis eradication global surveillance summary 2009. Weekly Epidemiological Records. 2010;85:166-176.
World Health Organization. Dracunculiasis eradication: global surveillance summary, 2004. Weekly Epidemiological Records. 2005;80:133-140.
World Health Organization. Dracunculiasis eradication: global surveillance summary, 2006. Weekly Epidemiological Records. 2007;82:133-140. Available:http://www.who.int/wer/2007/wer8216.
Ruiz-Tiben E, Eberhard ML, Roy SL. Progress towards global eradication of dracunculiasis. Morbidity, Mortality Weekly Reports. 2012;61:854-857.
Screenivasan N, Weiss A, Djiatsa J, Toe F, Djimadoumaji N, Ayers T. et al. Recurrence of guinea worm disease in Chad after a – 10year absence: risk factors for human cases identified in 2010-2011. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2017;97(2):575-582.
Eberhard ML, Ruiz-Tiben E, Hopkins DR, Farrell C, Toe F, Weiss A. et al. The peculiar epidemiology of dracunculiasis in Chad. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2014;90(1):61-70.
World Health Organization. WHO Collaborating Centers for Research Training and Eradication of Dracunculiasis. CDC Guinea worm wrap up number 264 Memorandum; 2019
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guinea worm wrap-up Number 259; 2019.
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) Key Facts; 2020.
Beyene HB, Bekele A, Shifara A, Ebstie YA, Desalegn Z, Kebede Z. et al. Elimination of Guinea worm disease in Ethiopia; current status of the diseases eradication strategies and challenges to the end game. Ethiopia Medical Journal. 2017;55(1):15-31.
World Health Organization. Collaborating Center for Drancuculiasis Eradication. Guinea worm Wrap-up 253, Atlanta. The Carter Center; 2018.
Available:www.cartercenter.org/research/pdfs/news/health-publications/guinea worm/wrap-up/ 253 pdf.
Cairncross S, Muller R, Zagaria N. Drancuculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative. Clinical Microbiology Review. 2002;15:223-246.
Muller R. Dracunculus and dracunculiasis. Advances in Parasitology. 1971;9:73- 151.
Muller R. Zoonoses. First Edition. Pages 204-223 in: Macpherson CNLPSC Editor, Unwin Hyman Limited, London, United Kingdom. 1991;204-223.