Main Article Content
Oryctes owariensis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) beetle is a destructive insect pest of both raphia and oil palms, causing damage to the fronds and trunk thus leading to low yields and subsequent death of infested palms. This study was aimed at monitoring the seasonal abundance of the beetle using visual lure or light traps suspended on poles around raphia palm farms designed as experimental sites (Locations A, B, C and D) for a duration of two years (2018 and 2019) in Bayelsa State. Four sampling seasons were engaged in the study: Four months of dry (January- April) and four months of wet (June- September) yearly. The lamps were powered seven consecutive nights monthly. Beetles trapped were counted daily and the numbers recorded. The result showed that the beetle had one generation per year, was nocturnal with seasonal activity spreading out from dusk to dawn. Adult population was highest within the dry sampling months of March to April as the insects mate for breeding, the wet months June and July recorded drastic fall in the number of trapped beetles while August and September recorded no catch. A total of 283 beetles were captured during the dry season against 8 trapped at the wet. Therefore, the high efficiency of the light traps as capture/ monitor tools in ascertaining the seasonal abundance of Oryctes owariensis beetle in raphia palm farms is a possibility for use in Integrated Pest Management Programs for controlling the pest population before they reach the economic threshold level.
Nair CPR. Ecology of Oryctes rhinoceros. ISSG Database/Specie/ecology. 1986;173.
Nishida GM, Evenhuis NL. Arthropod pests of conservation, significance in the pacific. A preliminary assessment of selected groups. In Invasive Species of the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy: South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. Samoa. 2000;142.
Bedford GO. Biology, ecology and control of palm rhinoceros beetles. Annual Review Entomology. 1980a;1(26):213.
Graham I. Food Australian. 41:564-566. In: Food Insects Newsletter. 1989;3(2).
Gressitt JL. The coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) with particular reference to the Palau Islands. Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. 1953;212: 157.
Bedford GO. Biology, ecology and control of palm rhinoceros beetle. Annual Review Entomology. 1980b;2(25):309-339.
Lale NES. Dictionary of entomology. Mole Publications Nigeria Limited. Maiduguri, Nigeria; 1996. ISBN: 978.32369-2-x.
Patrick C. Identification, images and information for insects, spiders and their kin for the United States and Canada Specie Xyloryctes jamaicensis- Rhinoceros beetles- Bug guide. Net. Iowa State University Entomology. 2004;8:100-216.
DeFoliart GR. Hypothesizing about palm weevil and palm rhinoceros beetle larvae as traditional cuisine, tropical waste recycling and pest and disease control on coconut and other palms- Can they be integrated? Food Insect Newsletter. 1990;3(2):1-6.
Fasoranti JO, Ajiboye DD. Some edible insects of Kwara State, Nigeria. America Entomologist. 1993;39(2):113-116.
Hills DS. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Cambridge University Press, London: Cambridge. 1983;2:516,766.
Kalshoven LGE, Laan PAV. Pest of crops in Indonesia Jakarta: P. T. Ichtiar Van Hoev, Jakarta. 1981;463-468.
Leefman S. De Klappertor (O. rhinoceros L.). Inst. Plantenziekten Meded. 1920;1:1-156.
Vaithlingam C. Role of insect light trap in organic agriculture. The Hindu. 2018;22: 38.
Epsky ND, Morrill WL, Mankin RW. Traps for capturing insects. In Capinera, J. L. (Ed.). Encyclopaedia of Entomology. Dordrecht: Springer. 2008;3887-3901.
Price B, Baker E. Night life; A cheap, robust, LED based light trap for collecting aquatic insects in remote areas. Biodiversity Data Journal. 2016;4(e7648): 1-18.
Farrow RA. A modified light-trap for obtaining large samples of night-flying locusts and grasshoppers. Australian Journal of Entomology. 1974;13(40):357-360.
Robinson HS. On the behavior of night-flying insects in the neighbourhood of a bright source of light. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London A. 1952;27(1-3):13-21.
Hussain AA. Notes on borers of date palms in Iraq. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1963;54:345-348.
Mariau D. Les fluctuations des populations d’ Oryctes en Cote d’ Ivoire. Oleagineux. 1967;22(7):451-454.
Venard-Combes P, Mariau D. Augosoma centaurius Fabricus (Coleopteran: Scarabaeidae). A serious pest of coconut in Africa. Descriptions, Biology and Method of Control. 1983;38(12):651-657.
Nigeria Zip Codes. My Area’s codes: Bayelsa State Map Showing Local Government Areas. Copyright © 2020.
Oluyemi AA, Abiodun KE, Devine OE, Peter A, Opaminola ND. Socio-economic implications of recurrent flooding on women development in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2016;4:33-46.
Zaid A, De Wet PF, Djerbi M, Oihabi A. Diseases and pests of date palm, pp. 227-242 In Zaid A. (Ed.) and de Wet PF. Date palm cultivation. Chapter I: Botanical and systematic description of the date palm. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper. Rev. 2002;1:156.
Mohammed E, M’hammed SB, Mohammed C. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the North Saharan Oases Ecosystems. Journal of Insect Science. 2014;14(1):256.
Al-Deeb MA, Mahmoud ST, Sharif EM. Use of light traps and differing light color to investigate seasonal abundance of the date palm pest, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 2012;105:2062-2067.
Ehsine M, Bekadhi MS, Chaieb M. Bio-ecologic observations on rhinoceros beetle Oryctes agamemnon (Burmeister 1847) on the palm dates Oasis of Rjim Maatoug in South-Western Tunisia. J. Arid Land Stud. 2009;19:379-382.
Bedford GO, Al-Deeb MA, Khalaf MZ, Mohammadpour K, Soltani R. Dynastid beetle pests In Wakil et al. (Eds.). Sustainable Pest Management in Date Palm; Current Status and Emerging Challenges, Sustainability in Plant and Crop Protection. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. 2015;73-108.
Khalaf MZ, Alrubeae HF, Al-Taweel AA, Naher FH. First record of Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus Fairmaire on date palm trees in Iraq. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2013;4:349-351.
Rochat D, Morin JP, Kakul T, Beaudoin-Ollivier L, Prior R, Renou M, Malosse I, Stathers T, Embupa S, Laup S. Activity of male pheromone of the Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis. J. Chem. Ecol. 2002;28:479-500.
Rochat D, Mohammadpoor K, Maloose C, Avand-Faghih A, Lettere M, Beauhaire J, Morin JP, Pezier A, Renou M, Abdollahi GA. Male aggregation pheromone of date palm fruit stalks borer Oryctes elegans. J. Chem. Ecol. 2004;30:378-407.
Hallet RH, Perez AL, Gries G, Gries R, Pierce HD Jr, Yue J, Oehlschlager AC, Gonzalez LM, Borden JH. Aggregation pheromone of coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 1995;21: 1549-1570.
Gries G, Gries R, Perez AL, Oehlschager AC, Gonzalez LM, Pierce HD Jr., Zebeyou M, Kouame B. Aggregation pheromone of the African rhinoceros beetles, Oryctes monoceros (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Dynastidae) Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C: A J. Biosci. 1994;49:363-366.
Al-Deeb MA, Enan MR. First record of a phoretic astigmatid Mite Sancassania sp. (Acaridae: Astigmata) on Oryctes agamemnon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in UAE. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2010;12:157-160.
Al-Sayed AE, Al-Tamiemi SS. Seasonal activity of the fruit stalk-borer, Oryctes agamemnon (Burm.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Sultanate of Oman. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 1999;77:1597-1605.
Friederichs K, Demandt. Westeres uber indischen Nashornkafer (Oryctes rhinoceros L.). Zeitschr. F. Angrew. Ent. 1922;8:295-324.
Buxton PA. Insect pest of dates and the date palm in Mesopotamia and elsewhere. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1920;11:287-303.
Khalaf MZ, Al-Taweel AA. Palm borers in Iraqi environment: Species, damages, methods of control. Republic of Iraq: Ministry of Science and Technology, Agricultural, Research Directorate. 2014;31.
Fasihi MT. A study on the population dynamism of sympatric species of Oryctes agamemnon and O. elegans. Bushebr: Agricultural and Natural Resources Center. Annual Report of Project. 2011;11.
Soltani R. The rhinoceros beetle Oryctes agamemnon arabicus in Tunisia: Current challenge and future management perspectives. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 2010;5:179-193.
Jonason D, Franzen M, Ranius T. Surveying moths using light trap: Effects of weather and time of year. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e92453.
Chen C, Harvey JA, Biere A, Gols R. Rain downpours affect survival and development of insect herbivores: The specter of climate change? Ecology. 2019;100(11):1-10,eo2819.
Suttle KB, Thomsen MA, Power ME. Species interactions reverse grassland responses to changing climate. Science. 2007;315:640–642.
Zhu H, Wang D, Wang L, Fang J, Sun W, Ren B. Effects of altered precipitation on insect community composition and structure in a meadow steppe. Ecological Entomology. 2014;39:453–461.
Dicke M. Plant phenotypic plasticity in the phytobiome: A volatile issue. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2016;32:17–23.
Kobori Y, Amano H. Effect of rainfall on a population of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology. 2003;38:249–253.
Dobkin DS, Olivieri I, Ehrlich PR. Rainfall and the interaction of microclimate with larval resources in the population dynamics of checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha) inhabiting serpentine grassland. Oecologia. 1987;71:161–166.
Kamata N, Igarashi Y. Influence of rainfall on feeding behavior, growth and mortality of larvae of the beech caterpillar, Quadricalcarifera punctatella (Motschulsky) (Lep, Notodontidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 1994;118:347–353.
Moran VC, Hoffmann JH, Basson NCJ. The effects of simulated rainfall on cochineal insects (Homoptera, Dactylopiidae): Colony composition and survival on cactus cladodes. Ecological Entomology. 1987;12:51–60.
Fink U, Völkl W. The effect of abiotic factors on foraging and oviposition success of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius rosae. Oecologia. 1995;103:371–378.
Bedford GO. Biology and management of palm dynastid beetles: Recent advances. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2013;58:353- 372.
Said I, Hasain N, Abdullah Z, Couzi P, Ouhichi M, Denon M, Rochat D. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm root borer Oryctes agamemnon. J. Chem. Ecol. 2015;4:446-457.