Diversity of Invasive Alien Dicot Species in Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India

Smriti Raj Verma *

Department of Biological Sciences, C.B.S.H., G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263145, Uttarakhand, India.

Sangeeta Joshi

Department of Biological Sciences, C.B.S.H., G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263145, Uttarakhand, India.

D. S. Rawat

Department of Biological Sciences, C.B.S.H., G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263145, Uttarakhand, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Objective: Regular assessment of invasive species is essential to understand the status of flora in any area. The current study is the result of a floristic survey of wild dicotyledonous angiospermic plants of Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.

Methods: For the study, field surveys were conducted from the year 2016-2022. Plant specimens were collected, dried, poisoned and herbarium were prepared. Specimens were identified with the help of various Floras.

Results: Anthropogenic stresses on the vegetation are on high in the area in the form of intensive agricultural farming, industrial activities, university campus activities, roads and traffic, parks and playgrounds and continuous removal of natural wild vegetation. The natural tarai vegetation of the region is nearly lost or found in patches while a major portion of the vegetation is composed of invasive alien plant species (IAPS). Two assessments of invasive alien angiosperm species have been carried out in the area during the last decade in 2011 and 2015. These assessments reported the presence of 52 species [16] and 85 species [17] of invasive alien dicot plants. The current study, however, reveals the presence of 105 invasive alien dicot species (IADS) from the study region. This large increment of more than 23 % in the IADS in such a short span of time reflects the poor state of natural vegetation and high degree of anthropogenic activities in the area. The nativity analysis revealed the dominance of South American elements (53.33%) in the invasive alien dicot flora of the study region, followed by Tropical American, African and North American elements.

Keywords: Wild flora, dicots, invasive alien dicot species, Pantnagar, taxonomy

How to Cite

Verma, Smriti Raj, Sangeeta Joshi, and D. S. Rawat. 2022. “Diversity of Invasive Alien Dicot Species in Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India”. Asian Journal of Biology 16 (1):7-19. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajob/2022/v16i1292.


Download data is not yet available.


Singh KP, Sinha GP, Khanna KK. Flora of Uttar Pradesh: Volume-I. Kolkata, Botanical Survey of India. 2016.

Anton A, Geraldi NR, Lovelock CE, Apostolaki ET, Bennett S, Cebrian J et al. Global ecological impacts of marine exotic species. Nat Ecol Evol. 2019: 3(5): 787-800.


Brondizio ES, Settele J, Diaz S, Ngo HT. Global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. IPBES Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 2019.

Khuroo AA., Ahmad R, Hamid M, Rather ZA, Malik AH, Rashid I. An annotated inventory of invasive alien flora of India. In: Pullaiah T, Lelmini MR, editors. Invasive alien species: observations and issues from around the world. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2021.


Das M, Sharma R, Nath N. Invasive alien herbaceous species in terrestrial and swampland habitats in India: A review. Int. J. Botany Stud. 2021: 6(2): 661 – 668.

van Kleunen M, Pysek P, Dawson W, Kreft H, Pergl J, Weigelt P. et al. The global naturalized alien Flora (GloNAF) database. Ecology 2019: 100: 1 10.1002/ecy.2542

Khuroo AA, Reshi ZA, Malik AH, Weber E, Rashid I, Dar GH. Alien flora of India: Taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biol. Invasions. 2012: 14: 99-113.


Ansong M, Pergl J, Essl F, Hejda M, van Kleunen M, Randall R, Pysek P. Naturalized and invasive alien flora of Ghana. Biol Invasions. 2019; 21: 669–683. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-018-1860-7

Pysek P, Pergl J, Essl F, Lenzner B, Dawson W, Kreft H. et al. Naturalized alien flora of the world: species diversity, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns, geographic distribution and global hotspots of plant invasion. Preslia 2017: 89: 203–274.


Vinogradova Y, Pergl J, Essl F, Hejda M, van Kleunen M, Pysek P. Invasive alien plants of Russia: insights from regional inventories. Biological Invasions 2018: 20: 1931–1943.


Sekar KC. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region—Diversity and Implication. Am. J. Plant Sci, 2012: 3:177-184.


Sekar KC, Manikandan R, Srivastava SK. Invasive alien plants of Uttarakhand Himalaya. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India Sect. B - Biol. Sci. 2012: 82: 375-383.


Negi PS, Hajra PK. Alien flora of Doon Valley, Northwest Himalaya. 2007. Curr. Sci. 92: 968-978. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24097678

Pathak R, Negi VS, Rawal RS, Bhatt ID. Alien plant invasion in the Indian Himalayan Region: state of knowledge and research priorities. Biodivers. Conserv. 2019: 28: 3073-3102.


McGeoch MA, Butchart SH, Spear D, Marais E, Kleynhans EJ, Symes A, Chanson J, Hoffmann M. Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses. Divers. Distrib. 2010: 16(1): 95-108.


Joshi K. Rawat DS. A preliminary investigation on alien and native elements in flora of Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 2011;90(1&2): 66-74.

Rastogi J, Rawat DS, Chandra S. Diversity of Invasive alien species in Pantnagar flora. Tropical Pl. Res. 2015: 2(3): 282-287

Reddy CS. Catalogue of invasive alien flora of India. Life Sci. J. 2008: 5(2): 84–89

Singh KP, Shukla AN & Singh JS. State-Level Inventory of Invasive Alien Plants, Their Source Regions and Use Potential. Curr. Sci. 2010: 99(1): 107–114.

Pysek P, Richardson DM. Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? Biol. Invasions. 2007: 193: 97–125.


Gioria M, Pysek P, Osborne BA. Timing is everything: does early and late germination favor invasions by herbaceous alien plants? J. Plant Ecol. 2018: 11(1): 4– 16.


Korner C, Stocklin J, Reuther-Thiebaud L, Pelaez-Riedl S. Small differences in arrival time influence composition and productivity of plant communities. New Phytol. 2008. 177(3): 698–705.


van Kleunen M, Dawson W, Essl F, Pergl J, Winter M, Weber E. et al. Global exchange and accumulation of non-native plants. Nature 2015: 525: 100 - 103.


Reddy C S, Bagyanarayana G, Reddy KN, Vatsavaya SR. Invasive Alien Flora of India. National Biological Information Infrastructure, Usgs, USA. 2008.

Mao AA, Dash SS. Flowering plants of India An annotated checklist (Dicotyledons) volume 1. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. 2020.

. Pysek P, Jarosík V, Hulme PE, Pergl J, Hejda M, Schaffner U, Vila M. A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species' traits and environment. Glob. Change Biol. 2012. 18(5): 1725-1737.


Thomas CD, Palmer G. Non-native plants add to the British flora without negative consequences for native diversity. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2015: 4387 - 4392.


Debnath A, Debnath B. Diversity, invasion status and usages of alien plant species in northeastern hilly state of Tripura: a confluence of Indo-Barman hotspot. Am. J. Plant Sci., 2017: 8(02): 212.

Wani ZA, Pant S, Sharma V. Diversity, Distribution, and Status of Weed Species of Northwest Himalaya. In: Pant D, Bhatia SK, Patel AK, Giri A, editors. Bioremediation using weeds Singapore: Springer; 2021.