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This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection using microscopy and adhesin detection methods among school children in Central Nigeria. After ethical clearance, stool samples of three hundred and sixty (360) children aged 5-16 years old as adopted by FMOH (2013) were randomly collected between September-December 2015 and were examined for E. histolytica cysts/trophozoites using microscopy and TechLab E. histolytica II ELISA test (Sigma Diagnostic Inc, USA) in six public primary schools in Keffi, Nasarawa State. The TechLab E. histolytica II ELISA result showed that out of the 88 (24.4%) stool samples positive by microscopy, 85 (96.6%) samples were positive for E. histolytica antigens while 3 (3.4%) were negative. The overall prevalence of the infection using microscopy method was 24.4%. Males recorded a higher prevalence 64 (30.5%) than females 24 (16.0%). Children aged 6-10 years recorded the highest prevalence of 37 (28.5%) while the lowest 22 (21.6%) was showed in those aged <6 years. There was significant difference in the infection rate among the sex of the children (p≤ 0.05). The association was also significant based on location of the children’s homes and finger sucking habit. Children living outside Keffi town had a higher prevalence 34 (25.4%) than those living in Keffi town 54 (23.9%). Out of the children infected, 23 (32.9%) suck their finger while 65 (22.4%) did not. In this study age, pupil’s class, occupations of caregivers, sources of drinking water and types of toilet facility had no statistical significance with E. histolytica infection (p 0.05). Health education programmes that will promote personal and environmental hygiene and regular mass treatment are suggested strategies to mitigate transmission of the infection especially in children who are usually asymptomatic.