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Microorganisms are described as multicultural microscopic organisms, which are cosmopolitan in nature, (i.e. they are widely distributed in air, water, soil, sea, mountains, hot springs and also in bodies of living plants and animals including the human), possessing a diverse array of metabolism. Microbial diversity includes a large collection of organisms. It includes a range of variability in all kinds of microorganisms like fungi, bacteria and viruses in the natural world. Microorganisms serves as the mainstay of life on Earth. Microorganisms represent the richest treasury or part in chemistry and molecular diversity in nature, establishing the basis for ecological processes such as biogeochemical cycles and food chains, also maintaining essential relationships among themselves and with higher organisms. Microbial diversity exploration has been encouraged by the fact that microbes are vital for life since they perform numerous functions essential for the biosphere. Maintaining multiple ecosystems functions and services, inclusively: nutrient cycling, litter decomposition primary production and climate regulation are among the key roles performed by microbial communities. Microbes not only reshaped the oceans and atmosphere but also gave rise to conditions conducive to multicellular organisms. The diversity of microorganisms is important in the maintenance and conservation of global genetic resources.
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