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Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine common pathogens associated with infected wounds and the phytochemical composition and antibacterial activities of Randia acuminata root extract against isolates associated with infected wounds.
Study Design: The ethanolic extract was used for the phytochemical screening of the root extract. The disc diffusion method was used to assess the antibacterial activities of the alkaloid fraction of the root extract against isolated pathogens.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (Microbiology Laboratory) and Department of Microbiology (Microbiology Laboratory), University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria between the months of April, 2017 – August, 2017.
Methodology: The isolation of infective agents from wound specimens and the phytochemical screening of the root extract were performed using standard methods. The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the alkaloidal fraction of the root extract on Staphylococcus aureus and species of Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Clostridium.
Results: Alkaloid, saponins, phlabotanin, anthraquinone deoxysugar, cardiac glycoside and terpenes constitute the bioactive components of the root extract. The pathogens associated with infected wounds and their frequency of occurrence were Staphylococcus aureus (35%) and species of Streptococcus (15%), Pseudomonas (20%) Klebsiella (20%) and Clostridium (10%). Susceptibility of the organisms to the root extract varied with concentration 30 < 40 < 50mg/ml The antibacterial activity of the extract suggests concentration-dependent inhibitory response by the test organisms.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the alkaloid fractions of R. acuminata root extract has potent antibacterial effect and can be incorporated into antiseptics for wound cleaning/dressing.